Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Original article / research
Table of Contents - Year : 2017 | Month : August | Volume : 11 | Issue : 8 | Page : TC17 - TC22

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Paediatric Spinal Dysraphism with Comparative Usefulness of Various Magnetic Resonance Sequences TC17-TC22

Deepakkumar Vinodary Mehta

Correspondence
Dr. Deepakkumar Vinodray Mehta,
Professor, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pramukhswami Medical College and Shree Krishna Hospital,
Gokal Nagar, Karamsad-388 325 [Dist. Anand], Gujarat, India.
E-mail: drdeepakvmehta1@gmail.com, drdeepakvmehta@yahoo.com

Introduction: Spinal dysraphism occurs due to failure of fusion of parts along dorsal aspect of midline structures lying along spinal axis from skin to vertebrae and spinal cord. Congenital spinal anomalies may be minimal and asymptomatic like spinal bifida occulta, or severe with marked neurological deficits like Arnold-Chiari malformation or caudal regression syndrome. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice to diagnose mild to severe spinal dysraphism.

Aim: To diagnose type and extent of clinically suspected spinal anomalies by MRI scan and to compare various sequences for identifying neural tissue and fatty tissue in anomalies.

Materials and Methods: Fifty paediatric patients referred with clinical suspicion of spinal anomalies for MRI scan to radiodiagnosis department and diagnosed as having spinal dysraphism on 1.5 Tesla MRI Scan, were included in this observational analytic study. Various MRI sequences were taken in multiple planes. MRI findings of spinal dysraphism were compared with detailed clinical examination or surgical findings. Osseous anomalies like spina bifida occulta were confirmed by radiographs or CT scan.

Results: Out of 50 patients, type II Arnold-Chiari Malformation (34%), Spina Bifida Occulta (22%) and Diastematomyelia (18%) were common anomalies. MRI findings were well correlated with surgical findings in 20 operated cases. Nerve roots with/ without neural placode in thecal sac/outpouching were detected in combination of 3D HASTE myelographic sequence with SE/TSE T1W sequence in 24 cases; which was significantly high as compared to combinations of SE/TSE T1W sequence with TSE T2W, with STIR and with Single Shot Myelographic sequence {p-value 0.002, < 0.001 and 0.008 respectively}. Fatty component was present in dysraphism in five cases, commonly as isolated anomaly; which was detected by combination of STIR and SE/TSE T1W sequences in all five cases.

Conclusion: Paediatric spinal dysraphism and associated malformations are accurately diagnosed on MRI scan. MR myelographic 3D-HASTE and STIR sequences should be a part of protocol to evaluate spinal dysraphism.