Prospective Evaluation of Psychosocial Impact after One Year of Orthodontic Treatment Using PIDAQ Adapted for Indian Population ZC44-ZC48
Dr. Tulika Tripathi,
Senior Professor and Head, Department of Orthodontics, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences,
Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, Mamc Complex, Delhi-110002, India.
Introduction: The impact of dental appearance, malocclusion and treatment for the same on psychological and functional well-being has drawn increasing attention over the past decade. Various psychometric instruments alongside normative indices have been used to predict orthodontic concerns. Evaluating the patients’ experience during the orthodontic treatment can help us understand the true benefits and advantages of orthodontic therapy.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the change in the psychosocial impact of malocclusion using the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) adapted for the Indian population after one year of fixed orthodontic treatment.
Materials and Methods: This interventional study was conducted on 93 patients requiring fixed orthodontic treatment. Brazilian, Chinese, Spanish, Nepali and Moroccan versions of the PIDAQ have been published but the questionnaire is not available in Hindi. In the present study, the original PIDAQ was translated into Hindi language to adapt it for the Indian population and was validated by back translation and pretest. All the subjects answered the Hindi version of the questionnaire at pretreatment (T1) and at one year of orthodontic treatment (T2). Additionally, the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) was applied to measure the severity and self-perception of malocclusion. The data were analysed using paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test and Kruskal-Wallis test.
Results: Significant reduction was found in the total PIDAQ score and each factor’s score (p<0.001) after one year of orthodontic treatment. There was a positive association of the psychosocial impact of malocclusion with the IOTN-AC (IOTN-Aesthetic Component). Adolescent females were found to be most concerned with their dentofacial appearance.
Conclusion: Results showed significant improvement in the psychosocial impact of malocclusion with a reduction in the self-perceived needs of patients with orthodontic treatment. The psychometric instrument used may be recommended as an Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) assessment tool for the population in India for further research.