Benefits of Alcohol on Arsenic Toxicity in Rats BF01-BF06
Dr. Purnima Singh,
Associate Professor, Department of Physiology, M. B. Kedia Dental College, Chhapkaiya, Birgunj-2, Nepal.
Introduction: It has been demonstrated earlier that exposure to ethanol and/or arsenic compounds (such as sodium arsenite) produces toxic effects as shown by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chronic exposure of humans to arsenic through drinking water, pesticides or consumption of alcoholic beverages has produced major health problem and concern in recent years. Water being one of the main ingredients for alcohol formation (beer fermentation process) can lead to contamination with arsenic. Thus, people consuming such alcohol are getting continuously exposed to arsenic compounds as well along with alcohol.
Aim: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of alcohol co-administration on arsenic induced changes in carbohydrate metabolic status in adult male albino rats.
Materials and Methods: Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain (weighing~100g) were divided into three groups (n=8 rats/group) including Control or vehicle treated (C), Arsenic treated (As) and Arsenic treated alcohol co-exposed (As+Alc). Treatment with Sodium-arsenite included intra-peritoneal injection consecutively for 14 days at a dose of 5.55 mg/kg (equivalent to 35% of LD50) per day. Absolute alcohol (15% v/v) was fed at a dose of 0.5 ml/100 g body weight per day for five consecutive days from start of the treatment schedule. Distilled water (D/W) was used as vehicle. Blood Glucose (BG) level, levels of glycogen, Pyruvic Acid (PA), Free Amino Acid Nitrogen (FAAN), total protein, Glutamate Oxalate transaminase (GOT) and Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (GPT) activity, and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity were measured in tissues including liver, kidney and muscle.
Results: Treatment with arsenic decreased the levels of BG, liver glycogen and PA, tissue protein and G6Pase activity, GOT activity in liver and muscle, and increased free amino acid content in kidney and muscle, GPT activity in liver and kidney. Alcohol administration to rats co-exposed to arsenic treatment reversed these changes.
Conclusion: Thus, it is suggested that combined administration of alcohol with arsenic can result in the suppression of the down-regulating action of arsenic on glucose homeostasis as evidenced by its hypoglycaemic effect and increased gluconeogenesis and transamination in liver.