Risk of GERD with Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension and Bronchial Asthma – A Hospital based Retrospective Cohort Study OC25-OC29
Dr. Bharti Chogtu,
Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal-576104, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: The rise in Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) prevalence appears to have coincided with a simultaneous increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and bronchial asthma amongst the Indian population. Despite being evaluated extensively for their role as a risk factor for GERD, till date this relationship has remained a debatable one. Moreover, literature available on such studies conducted within Indian population remains scarce.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the risk of developing GERD in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, hypertension and asthma in a Southern Indian population. The present retrospective, triple cohort and hospital based study was conducted by accessing the patient records from the medical records department of a tertiary care hospital in Southern India.
Materials and Methods: The patient’s records were accessed from the year 2011 onwards. Relative Risk (RR) was calculated to determine the risk of development of GERD with every disease. Chi-square test was used to determine the statistical significance of the relationship between each disease and the development of GERD. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: In view of the time constraints as well as the limitations of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, data pertaining to only 40, 71 and 53 patients in Cohort 1 (diabetics), 2 (hypertensives) and 3 (bronchial asthmatics) respectively could be analyzed in the present study. The relative risk of GERD development was greater than 1 for patients belonging to Cohort 2 and 3, suggesting that the risk of GERD development is higher amongst hypertensives and asthmatics. Surprisingly, the diabetics (Cohort 1) were not associated with a high risk of GERD development. However, the relationship between any of the disease and GERD development was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The present study found an increased risk of GERD development amongst patients suffering from hypertension and bronchial asthma, but not with diabetes mellitus.