Study on Serum Lipoprotein Profile of Exclusive Breast Fed, Mixed Fed and Formula Fed Preterm Infants SC01-SC05
Dr. Anita Mehta,
29 H (Behind Kali Mandir) Daudpur, Gorakhpur-273001, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Breast feeding is protective for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, obesity, Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and hypertension. Serum lipoprotein is principal risk factor for atherosclerosis. There is growing evidence that risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) begins to emerge from infancy. Lipoprotein level is affected by different feeding pattern during infancy.
Aim: To compare serum lipoprotein profile of exclusively breast fed, mixed fed and formula fed preterm infant.
Materials and Methods: A total of two fifty preterm newborn were recruited at birth and divided into three groups. Group A were Exclusively Breast Fed (EBF), Group B were Mixed Fed (MF) and Group C were Formula/bovine milk Fed (FF) infants. Preterm newborns with severe sepsis, hypoglycemia, Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) stage II and III, meconium stained amniotic fluid, pathological jaundice, Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD), less than 28 weeks gestation, with major congenital anomaly and infants born to mothers with DM, gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or on long term medications were excluded from the study. Lipoprotein profile estimation was done at four weeks and again at 16 weeks of age.
Results: At four weeks of age, Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001), EBF vs. FF (p<0.001) and MF vs. FF (p=0.005) infants. At 16 weeks also, TC and HDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, this difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001) and EBF vs. FF (p<0.001) infants. When infants were followed up to 16 weeks of age, TC and LDL level fell significantly (p<0.001) in EBF and MF group, a significant (p<0.05) rise for TC was seen in FF group. At 16 weeks of age, there was no significant rise in HDL in EBF infants, but significant fall was seen in MF (p=0.0001) and in FF (p=0.001) infants.
Conclusion: Breastfeeding, even MF is beneficial in preterm infants as compared to FF in terms of lipoprotein profile which is protective for atherosclerosis.