Role of Salivary Electrolytes in Prevalence of Dental Caries among Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Adults ZC05-ZC08
Dr. Ambikathanaya U.K,
Lecturer, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, Mysore-570015, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has been linked with an increased risk of caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease. Dental caries is more prevalent and even more severe in diabetic patients than non-diabetics. The aetiology and pathogenesis of dental caries are known to be multifactorial. The secretion rates and quality of saliva are important not only in caries development but also for remineralisation. As there is an alteration of the salivary constituents in diabetic patients its constituents has gained much importance as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Various factors that regulate the caries activity balance are the pH of saliva and concentration of various ions including free calcium, phosphate, sodium, chloride, potassium and fluoride ions in the saliva.
Aim: To investigate the association of salivary electrolyte concentration with dental caries among diabetic and non-diabetic individuals, of different age groups.
Materials and Methods: Ninety-six Patients were evaluated for the study in which forty eight were considered for control and forty eight for diabetic, in which these control group and diabetic group were further subdivided into young adults (20-39 yrs) and old age adults (40-64 yrs) with twenty four patients each. Young adult age group and adult age group had sub groups with caries and without caries group having twelve patients each respectively. Saliva was collected from the individuals, centrifuged and the supernatant obtained was assessed for the salivary electrolytes: sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous and chloride levels using an Erba autoanalyser. The results obtained were tabulated, statistically analysed using Independent sample t-test and conclusions drawn.
Results: The salivary electrolytes– sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphorous showed a significant decrease in caries active diabetic patients of young adult group. But in the older adult group K and Cl levels were statistically higher in caries active patients. Potassium & Phosphorous were statistically higher in young adult age group (Diabetic and Non diabetic) without caries and Potassium only in adult age group.
Conclusion: Salivary electrolyte plays a significant role in prevalence of dental caries in young diabetic individuals when compared to non-diabetic individuals and old age adults with and without diabetics. Therefore, maintaining the salivary electrolyte concentration in young diabetic individuals helps in remineralisation of the tooth which prevents decay.