Histological Changes in Testis of Wistar Albino Rats Following Formaldehyde Exposure by Inhalation AC05-AC09
Dr. Anjana Thamanan Sowdamman Rajavel,
Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Government Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai-600010, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Formaldehyde use remains a crucial occupational hazard, especially for anatomists and pathologists and has long been suspected of causing adverse effects on reproductive organs.
Aim: To evaluate the histological changes in the testis of wistar albino rats following formaldehyde exposure through inhalation.
Materials and Methods: The toxic effects of formaldehyde were studied by an animal experimental study at the Department of Anatomy, Government Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India. The study was conducted on 20 wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into five groups of four rats each. The control Group I was not exposed to formaldehyde. The exposure Group II (E1a) and Group III (E1b) were exposed to 1.5 ppm of formaldehyde for seven (6 hours) and twelve (4 hours) weeks respectively. The Group IV (E2a) and Group V (E2b) were exposed to 3 ppm of formaldehyde for seven (6 hours) and twelve (4 hours) weeks respectively. At the end of exposure period, the testis were dissected and observed for gross and microscopic (using haematoxylin and eosin stain) changes.
Results: The control group showed normal architecture with no microscopic changes. On gross examination, there was a significant and progressive reduction in the total body weight and in testis length in the experiment groups compared to the control group with increasing concentration gradient. The groups E1a and E1b showed focal atrophy of seminiferous tubules resulting in architectural distortion with hypospermatogenesis and focal tubular necrosis. Peritubular fibrosis was also observed. The interstitial and sertoli cells appeared normal. The groups E2a and E2b showed features of absent spermatogenesis in addition to architectural distortion of seminiferous tubules. There was no tubular necrosis but increased peritubal fibrosis was present. Focal hyperplasia of interstitial cells and sertoli cell crowding were also observed.
Conclusion: Formaldehyde is a suspected toxicant affecting the reproductive organs. The present study confirmed the altered microscopic structure following formaldehyde exposure through inhalation. The increase in concentration gradient resulted in more damage.