Antibacterial Effects of Garlic Extracts and Ziziphora Essential Oil on Bacteria Associated with Peri-ImplantitisCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Shima Ghasemi,
Assistant Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry,
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Azadi Street, Tabriz-2435-7654, Iran.
Introduction: Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory process, characterized by loss of bone around implants and bleeding on probing. Colonization of bacteria in the pocket created around the implant is one of the most important aetiologic factors involved. Although antibiotics are routinely used and are effective agents against this bacterial infection, due to the side effects and drug resistance of these medications, researchers are more interested in using herbal derivatives. There are relatively limited number of studies in this respect.
Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial effects of the extracts of Allium sativum and Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil on S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.
Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study conducted at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences between March 2016 and July 2016, aqueous and methanolic extracts of garlic and ziziphora essential oil were prepared and then their effects on one standard strain of P. aeruginosa and two standard strains of S. aureus and 18 clinical strains, (nine strains of P. aeruginosa and nine strains of S. aureus) which had been isolated from wound and blood cultures, were evaluated using the reference broth macro dilution method and disk diffusion technique. Data were evaluated with descriptive statistical techniques and t-test for independent groups, using SPSS 17.
Results: Aqueous and methanolic extracts of garlic did not exhibit inhibitory effects on S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) for ziziphora essential oil against S. aureus were 0.25 and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. The mean diameter of growth inhibition zone for S. aureus in the ziziphora essential oil group (0.25µg/mL) and Vancomycin group (10 µg/mL) were 26.09±5.8 and 14.63±1.20 mm respectively (p<0.001). Growth inhibition zone for P. aeruginosa were observed in only one (35 mm) and three cases (12.5±3.4 mm) in the ziziphora essential oil group (0.5 µg/mL) and Nalidixic acid group (10 µg/mL) respectively.
Conclusion: The essential oil of ziziphora exhibited a favourable antibacterial effect on S. aureus; therefore, its extract can be used as an effective antimicrobial agent alone or in association with other antibiotics in the treatment of infections due to S. aureus.
Allium sativum, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Nalidixic acid, Vancomycin
Farzane Pakdel, Shima Ghasemi, AmirReza Babaloo, Yousef Javadzadeh, Rosa Momeni, Milad Ghanizadeh, et al.. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS AND ZIZIPHORA ESSENTIAL OIL ON BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH PERI-IMPLANTITIS. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2017 April [cited: 2017 Apr 29 ]; 11:ZC16-ZC19. Available from
Date of Submission: Oct 13, 2016
Date of Peer Review: Nov 14, 2016
Date of Acceptance: Jan 06, 2017
Date of Publishing: Apr 01, 2017
Financial OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
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