Effects of Different Contraceptive Methods on Cervico-Vaginal CytologyCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Khushboo Garg,
Junior Resident, Department of Pathology, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut-250005, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: The vaginal flora of healthy adult women of reproductive age group constitutes predominantly Lactobacilli which inhibits the growth of other microorganisms (by maintaining acidic pH). The vaginal microflora is altered in favour of anaerobes in women using Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD). Also, it can cause morphologic changes in both squamous and endocervical columnar cells. Similarly, the prevalence of vaginal lactobacilli is reduced among women using diaphragm-spermicide or spermicide alone.
Aim: To study the effects of different contraceptive methods on cervical cytology and vaginal flora.
Materials and Methods: Two years prospective study included 120 women of reproductive age group using barrier, tubal ligation, IUCDs, Oral Contraceptive Pills (OCPs) and injectable methods of contraception and a control group including 60 women not using any contraceptive. Cervical and vaginal smears were obtained. Cervical smears were reported using the Bethesda system and Gram stained vaginal smears were scored using Nugent scoring. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software for Windows Version 19.0 and test of significance applied was Chi-square test.
Results: The most common contraception used was barrier (68.3%) followed by tubal ligation (14.2%), IUCD (9.2%), OCPs (6.6%) and injectable (1.7%). The presenting complaints were pain lower abdomen (46.7%) followed by menstrual complaints (22.5%). Epithelium showed reactive changes (45%) followed by metaplasia (25%), koilocytotic change (5%), cytolytic effect (5%) and satellitosis (4.2%). Women showed normal flora in 51.7%, altered in 30% and bacterial vaginosis in 18.3%.
Conclusion: Cervico-vaginal changes were more frequent in contraceptive users as compared to the control group.
Bacterial vaginosis, Nugent scoring, Pap smear
Khushboo Garg, Anjali Khare, Rani Bansal, Sangeeta Sharma, Neha Chaudhary. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS ON CERVICO-VAGINAL CYTOLOGY. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2017 July [cited: 2017 Sep 21 ]; 11:EC09-EC11. Available from
Date of Submission: Mar 09, 2017
Date of Peer Review: Mar 30, 2017
Date of Acceptance: May 05, 2017
Date of Publishing: Jul 01, 2017
Financial OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
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