Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Original article / research
Year : 2017 | Month : March | Volume : 11 | Issue : 3 | Page : EC12 - EC15

Erythrocyte Alloimmunization and Autoimmunization among Blood Donors and Recipients visiting a Tertiary Care Hospital

Daljit Kaur, Lovenish Bains, Manoj Kandwal, Indu Parmar

1. Consultant, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Max Superspeciality Hospital, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. 2. Assistant Professor, Department of General Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Hospital, Delhi, India. 3. Technical Supervisor, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Max Superspeciality Hospital, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. 4. Senior Scientific Officer, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Max Superspeciality Hospital, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Daljit Kaur,
Consultant, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Max Superspeciality Hospital, Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand, India.
E-mail: doc.daljit@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: The ultimate aim of pretransfusion testing is the acceptable survival of donor red cells in recipient’s body and antibody detection plays a critical role in achieving the same. The cornerstone of antibody detection method is detecting an unexpected antibody as against the expected antibodies of ABO blood group system. Autoantibodies can also interfere with the detection of clinically significant alloantibodies.

Aim: To study the frequency of alloantibodies and autoantibodies in the healthy blood donors and patient population visiting our hospital.

Materials and Methods: The Column Agglutination Technology (CAT) was used for ABO RhD blood grouping, Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT), Autocontrol (AC), Indirect Antiglobulin Test (IAT) and red cell antibody screening and the unexpected reactions in any of these tests were recorded for further evaluation. Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) blood samples were used for all these tests for both blood donors and admitted patients. The CAT was exercised for the blood grouping (using ABDReverse Diluent cassettes) and antibody screening (using 0.8% Surgiscreen, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics Limited, USA and Low Ionic Strength Saline Ortho BLISS with AHG cassettes) on the automated immunohaematology platform Ortho AutoVue® Innova system (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics Limited, USA).

Results: Among all blood donors (n=6350), seven (0.11%) donors had showed unexpected reaction. Of these, four had positive antibody screen (three having naturally occuring antibodies 2=anti-M, 1=anti-Lea and 1=inconclusive) and the other three had positive DAT. Of all the patient samples (n=6136) screened for irregular red cell antibodies, four (0.06%) patients were found to have unexpected reaction revealing one (0.02%) with anti-M antibody and the other three (0.05%) had autoantibodies in their serum.

Conclusion: The combined prevalence for both blood donor and recipient population (n=12,486) was found to be 0.11% at our center. The alloimmunisation among patient population was found to be lower than many other studies worldwide as our hospital does not cater to multitransfused or transfusion dependant patients with haematological disorders and majorly elective surgery patients with no history of previous blood transfusions visit our hospital.

Keywords

Alloantibodies, Autoantibodies, Direct antiglobulin test, Red cell antibody screen

How to cite this article :

Daljit Kaur, Lovenish Bains, Manoj Kandwal, Indu Parmar. ERYTHROCYTE ALLOIMMUNIZATION AND AUTOIMMUNIZATION AMONG BLOOD DONORS AND RECIPIENTS VISITING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2017 March [cited: 2017 Mar 24 ]; 11:EC12-EC15. Available from
http://jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2017&month=March&volume=11&issue=3&page=EC12-EC15&id=9401

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/22904.9401

Date of Submission: Jul 20, 2016
Date of Peer Review: Sep 23, 2016
Date of Acceptance: Nov 28, 2016
Date of Publishing: Mar 01, 2017

Financial OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.

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