An Assessment of Osteoporotic Conditions among Users and Non-Users of Warfarin: A Case-Control StudyCorrespondence Address :
Mrs. Aseel Hadi Abdulameer,
Postgraduate Student, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia,
Introduction: Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant which is associated with a decrease in Bone Mass Density (BMD).
Aim: The study aimed to explore the prevalence of osteoporosis conditions in Malaysians with chronic warfarin patients using calcaneal quarter of Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) machine and to investigate whether long-term sodium warfarin therapy that antagonizes vitamin K is affecting the increasing rate of osteoporosis in Penang and to find the risk factors of getting osteoporosis among warfarin users and its non users.
Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted among 130 patients using warfarin, attending the outpatient clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit the required sample. Another 140 subjects were selected from the community as a control group (non-users of warfarin).
Results: This study showed that more than three-quarter patients (82%) were at high risk of abnormal BMD. The warfarin users were two times more likely to have a higher osteoporosis risk compared to control group. Moreover, BMD has a negative correlation with age, but has a positive correlation with Body Mass Index (BMI). Patients showed a negative correlation with a higher dose of warfarin intake.
Conclusion: This study concluded that osteopenia and osteoporosis are serious problems between users and non-users warfarin in Penang. Therefore, it should be taken into consideration in the Malaysian Health Ministry’s agenda.
Anticoagulant drugs, Bone mineral density, Osteoporosis, Vitamin K
Aseel Hadi Abdulameer, Syed Azhar Bin Syed Sulaiman, Muhamad Bin Sk Abdul Kader. AN ASSESSMENT OF OSTEOPOROTIC
CONDITIONS AMONG USERS AND NON-USERS
OF WARFARIN: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2017 March [cited: 2017 Apr 25 ]; 11:OC21-OC24. Available from
Date of Submission: Aug 30, 2016
Date of Peer Review: Sep 23, 2016
Date of Acceptance: Oct 15, 2016
Date of Publishing: Mar 01, 2017
Financial OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
- PubMed Central® (PMC)New
- Academic Search Complete Database
- Chemical Abstracts Service
- Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
- Embase & EMbiology
- Google Scholar
- HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
- Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
- Journal seek Database
- Open J-Gate
- Popline (reproductive health literature)