Effect of Opioids on Oral Health Status among Institutionalised Drug Addicts in a District of Rajasthan, IndiaCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Deeksha Gijwani,
Postgraduate Student, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Surendera Dental College and Research Institute,
Sri Ganganagar-335001, Rajasthan, India.
Introduction: According to the World Health Organisation survey, 2004, opioid is one of the most common forms of drug used by drug abusers in India. The total number of registered opium abusers in India is estimated to be 1.4 million. The state in India with the maximum consumption of opium is seen in Punjab and Rajasthan when compared to the other states.
Aim: To assess the oral health status and related practices of opium drug users in Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, India.
Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 577 institutionalised adult male, drug addicts from across Rajasthan and Punjab. Comparison was made with duration of addiction to investigate any differences in oral health status. A standardised, pre-validated questionnaire was used to collect data on tooth brushing and its frequency, duration of drug abuse and oral complication like dry mouth, burning mouth, taste impairment and eating difficulty along with clinical examination to record Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S), Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and Decayed Missing Filled Surface (DMFS) index. The statistical significant analysis was done by t-test, Chi-square and level of significance was set at p<0.05. Multiple linear regression model was used to find out the association between duration of addiction and CPI, OHI-S and DMFS score.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 38.2±11.89 years. Maximum addiction was seen in the age group of 18-24 years (n=158, 27.4%). Significantly higher mean scores of OHI-S, CPI, Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) and DMFS score were reported among the patient on drug abuse of opioids for more than five years. Around half of the patients reported brushing their teeth at least once. Multiple linear regression model showed very high DMFS score which were associated with longer duration of drug addiction and no tooth brushing.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrates poor oral health behaviour, worse periodontal health and higher caries experience among opium abusers, it is important to develop a specialised awareness protocol towards oral healthcare for the societies where such drug dependency is widespread.
Drug addiction, Opium, Oral hygiene
Deeksha Gijwani, Simarpreet Singh, Anmol Mathur, Vikram Pal Aggarwal, Aditi Sharma, Nikita Goyal, et al.. EFFECT OF OPIOIDS ON ORAL HEALTH STATUS AMONG INSTITUTIONALISED DRUG ADDICTS IN A DISTRICT OF RAJASTHAN, INDIA. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2018 April [cited: 2018 Jul 20 ]; 12:LC01-LC04. Available from
Date of Submission: July 10, 2017
Date of Peer Review: Aug 29, 2017
Date of Acceptance: Jan 30, 2018
Date of Publishing: Apr 01, 2018
FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
- Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
- Index Copernicus ICV 2016: 132.37
- Academic Search Complete Database
- Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
- Embase & EMbiology
- Google Scholar
- HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
- Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
- Journal seek Database
- Popline (reproductive health literature)