Significance of Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia XC01-XC02
Dr. Nirupama Murali,
Associate Professor, Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangaluru-575001, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy accounting for approximately 30% of childhood malignancies. The incidence rate of leukaemia in various parts of India varies from 0.3-1.2%. Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is a pyridine-linked enzyme which is involved in metabolism of glucose in normal tissue. In leukaemic cells, there is loss of coordination of glycolytic sequence and tricarboxylic acid cycle, which leads to increased utilization of glucose. As there is high cell turnover, this leads to increased cell burden and high levels of serum LDH in ALL and the increase is much more than other haematological malignancies barring Burkitt’s lymphoma.
Aim: To study the level of LDH in ALL cases at the time of diagnosis in comparison with Non-ALL cases.
Materials and Methods: Fifty five cases of ALL and 23 cases of Non-ALL haematological malignancies as control were evaluated based on clinical manifestations, haematological parameters, peripheral blood picture and bone marrow findings. Serum LDH was estimated at the time of presentation by Cobas 6000, a photometrically automated system. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.
Results: In our study, high serum LDH levels were seen in 89.1% (49) cases and normal levels in 10.9% (6) cases. High blast percentage i.e., >20% on peripheral smear (65.5%) was associated with high serum LDH level. On correlation of serum LDH with peripheral smear blast percentage, a p-value of <0.05 was obtained which shows a significant correlation.
Conclusion: Serum LDH level can be considered as a simple cost-effective tool in the presumptive evaluation of childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia. LDH in combination with Uric acid helps in detecting tumour lysis syndrome at an early stage thereby aiding in early management.