Is there a Correlation between Micronutrients and Cognitive Status: An Exploratory Study of Senile Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type BC01-BC04
Dr. Surendra Pratap Mishra,
Associate Professor and Head, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi-221005, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Alzheimer disease is a multifarious neurodegenerative disorder which is a leading cause of dementia in late adult life. It is characterised by deposition of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloidal protein which contributes to senile plaques. Studies suggested that vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and folate (folic acid) deficiency in the elderly are most common. These micronutrients are crucial for proper brain function and play an important role in mental and emotional health.
Aim: To evaluate the level of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin D in the serum of the patient suffering from Senile Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type (SDAT).
Materials and Methods: The study was an open label, crosssectional and comparative analysis. There were 110 patients suffering from SDAT taken as sample. Study included elderly patient aged 60-75 years and the duration of the study was 17 months (December 2014 to May 2016). The Group 1 (n=110, case) included patients whose age between 60-75 year given Treatment As Usual (TAU) and they were supplemented with oral vitamin B12 and folate during the treatment and Group 2 (n=55, control) included patients whose age between 60-75 year given TAU i.e., without any supplementation. The study was done by Competitive, sandwich Enzyme-linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) to assess the serum level of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin D in patients suffering from SDAT (as cases) and healthy individual (as control). The statistical analysis was done by Student’s t-test. The data were expressed as mean±SD, p<0.05 was considered significant and mean±SD, p<0.001 was highly significant.
Results: The mean serum homocysteine level was higher in cases (11.65±8) nm/mL as compared to controls (6.27±6.77) nm/mL. The mean value of serum homocysteine was found significant in cases as compared to controls (p<0.001). The serum folate (17.59±22.74 ng/mL/26.65±27.26 ng/mL), vitamin B12 (1.27±1.61 ng/mL/1.44±0.75 ng/mL) and vitamin D (21.01±34.68 ng/mL/42.74±70.49 ng/mL) level was lower in cases as compared to controls. The mean value of folate, vitamin B12and vitamin D was found to be not significant in cases as compared to controls (p>0.05).
Conclusion: This study concluded that higher serum homocysteine levels, lower vitamin D, vitamin B12 and folate levels are risk factor for the SDAT.