Cytological Study of Abdominal Lymph Nodes by Fine Needle Aspiration under Image Guidance EC01-EC05
Dr. Rajeev Ranjan,
Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Kannauj, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) has become simple, safe, speedy, cost-effective, accurate and more diagnostic after advancement in imaging techniques. Sensitivity of image guided FNAC of intra-abdominal lymph nodes is relatively high. Ancillary techniques on FNAC material may increase the accuracy of diagnosis.
Aim: To evaluate adequacy of material, cytologic assessment of samples obtained by image-guided aspiration and side effect/complication on account of the procedure.
Materials and Methods: Image guided FNAC were performed on 60 patients which include retroperitoneal and abdominal nodes. A sterile 3.5/5-MHz micro convex sector probe was used for localisation of the node. FNAC was performed using a 0.7-0.9 mm needle with stylet removed and attached to a 20ml syringe and FNAC handle after the needle was visualised in the lesion. For each case a minimum of 4-5 smears were made and two observers without bias interpreted the smears.
Results: A total of 60 patients were aspirated, of which adequate material for cytologic diagnosis was obtained in 58(96.6%) patients with a similar diagnostic accuracy. The 6th and 7th decade accounted for approximately half of the cases. Male to female ratio in our study was 2.16:1 (41:19). Most common cytologic diagnosis was metastasis 22(37%) followed by Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 17(28%) and followed by tubercular etiology seen in 16(27%) cases. All patients were followed by six monthly period for five years to further validate the study.
Conclusion: Image-guided FNAC has a pivotal role, and is a cost-effective tool for establishing tissue diagnosis as a primary investigative modality. It is also helpful and accurate in follow-up of patients with a known malignant disease, thereby avoiding surgical intervention.