HPV Risk Factors and Prevention Behaviours: A Review LE01-LE05
Dr. Masoumeh Simbar,
Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Midwifery and Reproductive Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Vali-Asr Avenue, Cross of Vali-Asr and Neiaiesh Highway, Opposite to Rajaee Heart Hospital, Tehran-1996835119, Iran.
Introduction: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most commonly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) that is responsible for the majority of Cervical Cancer (CC) cases.
Aim: The present study aimed to review HPV risk factors and prevention behaviours.
Materials and Methods: In this study, articles indexed in databases, such as PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were reviewed. In total, 29 papers on the risk factors and the associated prevention methods in this area were evaluated.
Results: Risk factors and prevention of HPV infection were classified into three domains: individual, behavioural, and psychosocial. There were differences with regard to age, race, marriage and the number of pregnancies, in the individual domain. In the behavioural domain, conflicting evidence was found on oral contraceptives and the use of condom. In the psychosocial domain, the main risk factors for HPV include: believing in fatalities of the cancer, the shame of the disease, and fear of vaginal examination. Meanwhile, the fear of developing HPV led to the prevention of high risk behaviours.
Conclusion: Given the limited research on risk factors or HPV prevention in Iran and the contradictions observed in the results of studies, there is a need for further investigations to obtain basic information on risk factors and prevention. In this regard, widespread health education is a necessity for raising the awareness of individuals about HPV infection prevention.