Prevalence and Pattern of Congenital Musculoskeletal Anomalies: A Single Centre Study QC16-QC19
Dr. Vivek Singh,
1/3, Type II-B, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Residential Complex,
Veerbhdra Marg, Rishikesh-249203, Uttarakhand, India.
Introduction: Musculoskeletal defects are second most common birth defects after central nervous system anomalies.Only very few studies from India concentrates on the pattern of patients specifically dealing with congenital musculoskeletal anomalies.
Aim: To determine the pattern and birth prevalence of musculoskeletal congenital malformations among the subset of neonates and infants born in a single tertiary care centre of north India and referred to Orthopaedic Department from Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Paediatric Department.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all the referrals made from Obstetrics as well as Paediatric Department to Orthopaedic Department from September 2014 to August 2016 for assessment of any visible congenital limb defect in a neonate was done. Only those infants were included in the study who were born in the same hospital during the study period. A record of all the deliveries conducted during the study period was also analysed. Pattern of anomalies in upper limb, lower limb and axial skeleton was noted. Birth prevalence of all the musculoskeletal anomalies was also determined.
Results: During the study period a total of 10,126 births were recorded and 71 infants were found to have some form of musculoskeletal defect with prevalence of 7.01/1000 births. Out of 71 cases, 43 (60.56%) were males and 28 (39.44%) females. Ten (14%) children had the anomalies affecting the upper limb with a prevalence of 0.99/1000 births while in 49 (69%) the lower limb was affected with a prevalence of 4.84/1000 births. Twelve (16.9%) children had anomalies affecting the axial skeleton (birth prevalence 1.18/1000). The most common anomalies were Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV) (33 cases; 46.48%), Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) (10 cases; 14.08%) and spina bifida (seven cases; 9.86%) with a birth prevalence of 3.25/1000, 0.99/1000 and 0.69/1000 respectively.
Conclusion: Congenital musculoskeletal anomalies has a prevalence of 7.01 per 1000 live births. CTEV and DDH are one of the commonest anomalies which are easy to treat if recognised early. Screening of every newborn by an Orthopaedic specialist is warranted.