Association of Coronary Artery Diseases with ABO and Lewis Blood Group Phenotypes at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Southern India EC17-EC21
Dr. Arun Rajendran,
Associate Professor, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences,
Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Since the discovery of blood group systems, involvement of ABO system to coronary artery disease was suggested. Epidemiological data on the association of ABO and Lewis blood group with coronary artery disease from Southern India was not available.
Aim: To assess the pattern and association of ABO and Lewis blood group phenotypes in confirmed Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) patients attending the tertiary care hospital in Southern India.
Materials and Methods: The present study was a single centric case control analytic study where 187 clinically confirmed CAD cases were compared with age and gender matched 187 healthy controls. ABO grouping and Lewis antigen typing were determined to know the association with CAD and its risk factors. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0 and by computing categorical variables in percentage.
Results: Blood group O was the most common (41.2%) blood group in the controls followed by blood group B (33.2%), A (21.9%), AB (3.7%). The prevalence of O group in the CAD patients was almost similar to controls, but comparatively, the frequency of Non O groups showed a mild increase in the CAD patients; the frequency of AB groups in these patients was comparatively less than the controls. The prevalence of Le (a-b-) phenotype has been observed to be 32.6%. We observed that 94.1% of cases were associated with risk factors like ‘Smoking’, ‘Hypertension’, ‘Diabetes mellitus’, ‘Dyslipidemia’.
Conclusion: The present study failed to show a significant association of ABO blood group with CAD but showed a significant association of ABO group with risk factors like hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking. It also showed a significant association of Le (a-b-) phenotype with CAD and with risk factors like diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking.