Effect of 1800-2100 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on Learning-Memory and Hippocampal Morphology in Swiss Albino Mice AC14-AC17
G Krishna Kishore,
Department of Anatomy, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Tamaka, Kolar, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: With advancing technology the mobile phone with multiple features is used as a multipurpose device and attract people of all age groups. Increased usage of mobile phone raises the question of possible adverse effects on health.
Aim: To assess the 1800-2100 MHz radiation effect on learning-memory and microscopic anatomy of hippocampal Cornu Ammonis (CA3) neurons in mice.
Materials and Methods: A total of 18 albino mice were divided into 3 groups (6 Mice per group). Group-I: Control Group, Group-II: Exposed to Radio frequency-Electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) for 30 minutes/day for 3 months, Group-III: Exposed to RF-EMR for 60 minutes/day for 3 months. Followed by the exposure, learning memory was assessed by using Hebb-Williams maze in all the groups. The mice were then sacrificed, brains were dissected out and sections were taken at the level of hippocampus and then stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin for microscopy.
The results were expressed in Mean±SD and analysed by using one-way (analysis of variance) ANOVA followed by LSD (Least Square Difference) test for paired wise data. The p-value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: The time taken by the animal to reach the target chamber was significantly increased in Group-III (exposed 60 minutes/day for 3 months), whereas group-II (exposed 30 minutes/day for 3 months) showed no significant changes when compared to Group-I (control group). Microscopic anatomy of hippocampal CA3 neurons in exposed group shows less number of pyramidal cells with darkened nuclei, cytoplasm was vacuolated and cells were scattered.
Conclusion: Exposure to 1800-2100 MHz radiation leads to damage and decrease of neurons in hippocampal region, which alters the learning and memory.