Cytoprotective Activity of Neichitti (Vernonia cinerea) in Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) Normal Cells and Human Cervix Epitheloid Carcinoma (HeLa) Cells against Cisplatin Induced Toxicity: A Comparative Study KC01-KC06
Dr. Vasudha Devi,
Professor and Head, Department of Pharmacology, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal-576104, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Traditional Siddha Medicine literatures suggest to use the decoction of Vernonia cinerea (VC) to alleviate toxic effects caused by metals. Cisplatin, a metal used in cancer treatment is known to cause nephrotoxicity.
Aim: To evaluate and compare protective activity of aqueous extract and fractions of VC in Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) cells and Human Cervix Epitheloid Carcinoma (HELA) cell lines against cisplatin induced cytotoxicity.
Materials and Methods: The Crude Aqueous Extract (CAE) was obtained from whole plant of VC. CAE was fractioned using nonpolar to polar solvents, and Butanol Fraction (BF) as well as Aqueous Fractions (AF) were obtained. The cell lines were exposed with the IC50 dose of cisplatin, then treated with different doses of the extract or fractions. After 48 hours of incubation, viable cell growth was determined by MTT reduction assay in all the treatments by observing at absorbance of 540 nm. Dose response (% cell viability) curve was drawn and the values were statistically compared using One-Way ANOVA, followed by Dunnett’s (2-sided) post-hoc test.
Results: Aqueous fraction showed 2.8 times higher cytoprotection (improvement in cell viability by 54%) than CAE against cisplatin induced toxicity in HEK293 cells. BF did not show protective activity in HEK293 cells. In HELA cells, AF showed 1.73 times higher cytoprotection than CAE and 1.55 times higher cytoprotection than BF against cisplatin, as evidenced by improvement in cell viability by 30%, 11% and 13% in AF, CAE and BF respectively. AF exhibited 80% higher cytoprotection against cisplatin cytotoxicity in normal HEK293 than cancer HELA cells. Whereas, CAE and BF showed lesser cytoprotective activity than AF.
Conclusion: This study created scientific basis for using Vernonia cinerea against metal toxicities in Siddha system and suggests that the AF is suitable for further discovery of drug that selectively protect normal renal cell during cisplatin treatment in cancer patients.