Age and Genderwise Seasonal Distribution of Dermatophytosis in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Puducherry, India WC06-WC10
No. 109th, Cross Extension, Rainbow Nagar, Puducherry, India.
Introduction: Superficial infections of skin, hair and nail are caused by dermatophytes due to its high affinity towards keratinized layers. Dermatophytosis is a progressing infection with an outer ring of active lesion and central healing. In recent years there is a worldwide increase in people getting affected by dermatophytic infections mainly due to increase in number of immunocompromised patients and widespread use of broad spectrum antibiotics.
Aim: The present study was designed to investigate the age and genderwise seasonal prevalence of dermatophytosis visiting the tertiary care hospital, Puducherry.
Materials and Methods: A total of 356 samples which comprises of 206 skin scrapings, 82 nail clippings and 68 hair samples were collected from 356 patients clinically suspected with dermatophytosis. The materials were subjected to direct microscopy (KOH mount) and cultured on to Sabouraud’s dextrose agar slopes and dermatophyte test medium for selective isolation of dermatophytes. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect various socio-demographic profiles from the study population to assess the age and genderwise seasonal distribution of dermatophytosis. Frequency distribution was performed for analysis of results.
Results: Dermatophytosis was found to be more prevalent in males 223 (62.6%) compared to females 133 (37.4%) with male to female ratio being 1.67:1. Tinea corporis was the common clinical presentation in males 71/223 and Tinea unguium was common in females 58/133. Maximum number of cases affected with dermatophytosis was in the age group 21 to 30 years, 98 (27.5%), with least number of cases 27 (7.6%) in above 50 years. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the major isolate from hair and nail specimens 14/18 and 11/23 respectively, whereas Trichophyton rubrum was the common isolate from skin scrapings 41/98. Maximum prevalence 127 (35.8%) of dermatophytosis cases was recorded during the summer months April to June.
Conclusion: Skin infection being the most common clinical presentation followed by nail and hair infection. Though all ages were found susceptible, dermatophytosis was more common in 3rd decade of life. Males predominated in all clinical types except in cases with Tinea manuum and Tinea unguium females predominated. Dermatophytosis was reported in all seasons, since Puducherry’s climatic condition is hot and humid all through the year which serves best for dermatophytes to establish an infection with increased prevalence during the months of April to June. Hence the present study emphasises that the population at risk in this locality needs to be awakened regarding the protective measures to cut down the prevalence.