Socio-demographic and Lifestyle Determinants of Insomnia among Adult Patients Attending Primary Healthcare Centres, Jeddah: A Cross-sectional Study LC14-LC20
Dr. Abeer Lafi Almohammadi,
Jeddah, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Introduction: Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder. Its prevalence differs worldwide, from 5% to 40% depending on the criteria used to define insomnia, techniques, and method of collecting data. In Saudi Arabia, approximately 40% of adults with insomnia also have comorbid medical or psychiatric disorders. There are many factors which are associated with insomnia.
Aim: To assess the association between socio-demographic and lifestyle factors with the occurrence of insomnia.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 10 PHC centres of Jeddah. A total of 376 adult participants were interviewed by using a questionnaire which included questions about sociodemographic and lifestyle-related questions. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index was used to assess insomnia. Data were analysed and descriptive statistics (i.e., frequency, percentages, mean and standard deviation) were calculated. The chi-square test was applied to test significance of differences between groups. The p-values <0.05 were considered as statistically significant.
Results: More than half of participants (51.1%) had poor sleep quality. The highest prevalence of poor sleep quality was observed among those who performed physical exercise four times or more weekly (67.3%). The poor quality of sleep was higher among those who drink coffee (p=0.001). Regarding risk factors for grades of insomnia, higher prevalence of severe insomnia was observed among younger participants (p=0.001), Saudi citizens (p=0.032), obese participants (p=0.045), university educated participants (p<0.001), and those who practised exercise four times or more weekly (p=0.001).
Conclusion: Lifestyle factors had a significant effect on sleeping quality especially among young adults, obese people, and highly educated participants.