Effect of Cuban Sugarcane Wax Acids and Policosanol on Serum Lipid Profile and Apolipoprotein A-I Expression in Hyperlipidemic Zebrafish BC16-BC20
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Research Institute of Protein Sensor, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan,
Gyeongbuk, South Korea.
Introduction: Sugarcane Wax Acids (SCWAs) and Policosanol (PCO) are mixtures of higher aliphatic acids and alcohols purified from sugarcane wax. Octacosanoic acid and octacosanol are the chief components of PCO and SCWA, respectively. The role of PCO in the improvement of dyslipidemia is well documented, however, the lipid-lowering effects of SCWA remains debatable.
Aim: To compare the atheroprotective effects of SCWA and PCO on the expression level of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in the treatment of dyslipidemia.
Materials and Methods: Hyperlipidemic zebrafish were supplemented with either SCWA (40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg) or PCO (40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg) for 10 weeks. After the supplementation, lipid-lowering effects and apoA-I expressions were measured by plasma and histologic analysis, cholesteryl ester transfer and Ferric Reducing Ability (FRA) assay and immunoblotting. Data were evaluated using one-way ANOVA and differences between the mean were assessed using Duncan’s multiple range test. p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The supplementation significantly improved serum lipid profile, especially lowering Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG) and raising HDL-C in a dose-dependent manner. SCWA (80 mg/kg of body weight) supplemented High Cholesterol Diet (HCD) group showed are remarkable decrease in body weight and the significant reduction in TC and TG, up to 65% (p<0.01) and 45% (p<0.05) respectively, than HCD control. PCO (80 mg/kg of body weight) group showed the highest HDL-C level and apoA-I expression with the lowest serum Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) activity. Both PCO and SCWA groups showed amelioration of fatty liver change with inhibition of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and enhancement of antioxidant ability in hepatic tissue despite of high cholesterol diet consumption.
Conclusion: The supplementation of SCWA or PCO resulted in enhancement of survivability and hepatic function with the improvement of dyslipidemia and elevation of apoA-I and HDL-C via CETP inhibition. These results suggest that SCWA like PCO is an effective lipid-lowering agent.