Preoperative Biochemical, Haematological and Radiological Parameters in Breast Cancer: A Case-control Study EC19-EC23
Dr. T S Rekha,
Associate Professor, Department of Pathology, JSS Medical College, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Sri Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Mysuru, Karnataka-570015, India.
Introduction: Haematological, biochemical and radiological investigations are prerequisite for surgical resection in breast cancer. Deranged parameters predict a poorer outcome following surgery and also may adversely influence the risk factors, clinical presentation, predict morbidity, mortality and provide guidelines for treatment in breast cancer.
Aim: To evaluate the significance of breast cancer preoperative investigation when compared with apparently normal control. To assess the association of the significant preoperative investigations with the established breast cancer risk factors, clinical findings and histopathological prognostic factors.
Materials and Methods: This was a case-control retrospective study with 156 histopathologically confirmed breast cancer cases and 102 controls and data were collected through structured questionnaire that included risk factors, clinical, histopathologic, and investigation details. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s chi-square, Odds ratio, Student’s t-test and ANOVA were calculated.
Results: There were 3 (1.9%), 81 (51.9%) and 72 (46.2%)cases of Grade I, II and III respectively. When compared to apparently normal controls haemoglobin (Hb), RBC, ESR, RBS, Urea, Creatinine, Sodium, Potassium and Chloride levels were statistically significant. On analysing these significant presurgical investigations with the established breast cancer risk factors, clinical findings and histopathological prognostic factors it was found that Hb with grade; WBC with stage; urea with lymphadenopathy and nipple discharge; creatinine with in-situ and Lymphovascular Invasion (LVI); sodium with grade, mobility of breast lump, lymph node metastasis and Progesterone Receptor (PR); potassium with in-situ had significant association. Radiological parameters were not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that the presence of preoperative anaemia, leukocytosis and renal impairment has adverse influence in breast cancer and thereby aid to plan the treatment accordingly.