Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Archana Dambal

"Journal of clinical and diagnostic research is a welcome change in publishing practices. It aims to reach out to the grass-root level researchers who do not lack in experience, clinical material and ideas, but lack in their knowledge in English language and statistics. The journal achieves it's aim by supporting in these exact domains.
It also gives due credit to all research designs like descriptive and qualitative studies while many journals ignore these important study designs. The rigorous review process does not allow any compromise in quality
It is indexed in many indexing agencies and the articles are available under creative commons licence free of cost
The frequency of publication supports many aspiring authors from India and other countries.
It's wide scope welcomes articles across various specialities in medicine. In an era when there is an unscientific insistence on speciality specific research by regulatory bodies in medical education, JCDR supports collaborative research across specialities. I wish the publisher all the best in his future endeavors."



Dr. Archana Dambal
Department of General Medicine,
Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences,Belgaum, Karnataka,INDIA,
On 30 Nov 2018




Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"



Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : December | Volume : 5 | Issue : 8 | Page : 1505 - 1509

Cadaveric Tissue Histology: A Viable Alternative

Tulika Gupta, Krishan Gauba

1. M.D., Department of Anatomy, Institute of Dental Sciences & Hospital, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India. 2. MDS, Department of Oral Health Sciences, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences & Hospital, Chandigarh, India.

Correspondence Address :
Tulika Gupta,
Department of Anatomy, Institute of Dental Sciences &
Hospital, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.
Phone: 91 172 2724912; Fax: 91 172 2724912
E-mail: tulikag11@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Histological slides are routinely prepared by using tissues from surgically removed specimens which are an unreliable source for a normal histology, with associated with ethical issues. An alternative tissue source is animal tissue which is easily available, but it has different histological details as compared to the human tissue.

Aim: Therefore, this study was conducted to standardize the histology of different tissue types of the human body, which were obtained from the embalmed cadavers which were available in anatomy departments.

Methods: Histology slides were made the following standard protocol, with haematoxylin and eosin staining. The study material was selected to include all the tissue types.

Results: Histologically, all the tissues showed excellent tissue organization. The nuclei, the cell membranes and the cytoplasmic details were clear and well preserved.

Conclusions: This study showed that cadaveric tissue is suitable for histological studies. A cadaver is an ideal source of tissue for the purpose of teaching and research.

Keywords

Cadaveric tissue, Histology, Histology teaching

How to cite this article :

Tulika Gupta, Krishan Gauba. CADAVERIC TISSUE HISTOLOGY: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2011 December [cited: 2019 Aug 19 ]; 5:1505-1509. Available from
http://jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2011&month=December&volume=5&issue=8&page=1505-1509&id=1743

Introduction
Knowledge of the histology of normal tissues is an essential requirement for establishing parameters for diagnosis of pathological conditions. Thus, teaching histology is an important and integral part of the undergraduate and most of the post graduate curriculums. The availability of normal human tissue is a major limiting factor. Most of the tissues which are available for histology are taken from the periphery of the tissue specimens which are removed for some pathological indication. It is not only difficult, but also unethical to get normal tissue for histological studies. Thus, the normal histology slides which are available for study and comparison are made either from animal tissues or from normal tissues which are incidentally removed during surgical procedures. Surgically removed tissues have the drawbacks of erratic supply as well as ethical clearance, which is becoming increasingly difficult. Apart from their limited availability, the cost of procuring good teaching slides may be prohibitive for many teaching departments.

An alternative method to obtain normal tissue for histology is from cadavers. Once a cadaver has been obtained for anatomical studies by following the standard procedures, there are no ethical issues which are involved with it. Thus, cadaveric tissue could be an ideal source of tissue for bio-medically related structural research, without the constraints of additional ethical approval.

This can provide a ready source of material for getting sufficient body tissues for studying the normal human histology.

There are sporadic reports on the cadaveric histology of different tissues like ligaments and muscles, but there is no comprehensive study which is available on the importance and the utility of the cadaveric histology. The present study was undertaken to determine the histological details of various tissues which were taken from cadavers. Our aim was to establish whether the cadaveric histology could replace the in vivo histology for normal tissue related teaching and documentation and thus provide the clinicians and histopathologists with a practically unlimited source of normal histological tissue for comparison with the pathological specimens.

Material and Methods

This study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy at the Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Punjab University, Chandigarh. The tissues were harvested from a cadaver which was available in the Department of Anatomy at the HSJ Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Punjab University, Chandigarh. The cadaver was embalmed about forty-eight hours after death. The body was kept in a refrigerated chamber before embalming. The embalming was done by using a 40% of formaldehyde solutionwhich was mixed with adjuvants. As this cadaver had been procured by following a standard ethical protocol, additional ethical clearance was not required to harvest the tissues.

Despite their disparate structure and physiological properties, all the organs are made up of only four basic tissue types, the epithelium, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nerve tissue. The following tissues were selected deliberately, as together they encompass all the above mentioned tissue groups and their subtypes. This enabled us to study the histological status of all the types of tissues in the human cadaver.

1. Skin 2. Muscle 3. Cartilage 4. Artery 5. Brain 6. Trachea 7. Liver 8. Spleen 9. Nerve 10. Small intestine Five samples of every tissue were taken from the same cadaver.

1. Tissue Preparation
• Cadaver selection: The following parameters were recorded at the time of the cadaver selection: age, sex, cause of death, medical history and the time lapse between the death and embalming. The cadaver was embalmed by using a perfusion and local injection method. The embalming fluid contained 10% formalin, 10% ethanol, 20% glycerin, 5% phenol, thymol crystals and magnesium chloride. The embalming was done within 48 hours of death.

• Tissue harvesting:
Each tissue type was taken from the same cadaver, with no history of involvement of the above tissues with a disease process.

• Fixation of the tissue sample:
It was the first step in the tissue preparation. It was done to preserve the tissue structure for subsequent treatments. 10% Formalin was used as a fixative.

• Paraffin embedding:
The tissue was infiltrated with the embedding medium that allowed it to be thinly sliced. The specimen was washed after fixation and it was dehydrated in a series of alcohol solutions of ascending concentration up to absolute alcohol to remove water from the tissue. An organic solvent, (Xylene), which is miscible in both alcohol and paraffin, was then used to remove the alcohol prior to infiltration of the tissue with melted paraffin.

• Block making:
When the melted paraffin was cool and hardened, it was trimmed into an appropriate sized block.

• Sectioning:
The block was mounted and sliced by using the Spencer type microtome.

• Staining:
Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) staining was done. To stain the tissue section, paraffin was dissolved with Xylene, and the slide was rehydrated through a series of solutions of descending alcohol concentration. The tissue on the slide was then stained with Haematoxylin in water. Counterstaining was done with Eosin..As an Eosin stain is more soluble in alcohol than in water, the specimen was again dehydrated through a series of alcohol solutions of ascending concentration and was stained with Eosin in alcohol.

• Mounting:
After the staining, the specimen was passed through Xylene to a non-aqueous mounting medium and it was covered with a cover-slip.

2. Microscopy:
The prepared slides were examined and thoroughly studied under a trinocular light microscope with a camera. Each slide was seen by two different observers. Theseslides are available in the Department of Anatomy. A detailed histological description of each tissue was recorded.

Each tissue was examined for its histological details. The tissue architecture, including the thickness and the condition of various layers in the given tissue were checked. The cellular details like the cell size, the cell membrane and the nuclear details, as well as the intercellular spaces were noted. As the histological specimens were from a cadaveric tissue, special attention was paid to identify the features which indicated cell death.

3. Data Storage and Compilation:
Photographic data: Microscopic photographs were taken for each tissue. The microphotographs were taken in three different resolutions – 4X, 10X and 40X. They were directly stored into the computer data base for further analysis and comparison. The objective data for each slide which described the cellular details and the architecture was recorded and compiled.

4. Comparison:
Each tissue subtype was compared with a standard histological slide of the same tissue which was similarly stained, but was made from the tissue which was obtained from a live human body. One point each was awarded for the following details and a total score of 10 was devised for the perfect match.

• Tissue architecture:
Arrangement of various cellular elements in relation to each other. • Sharpness of the cellular outline. • Cell size. • Intra-cellular details at the given magnification. • Size and position of the nucleus. • Staining properties of the nucleus. • Intra-nuclear features like nucleoli and the arrangement of chromatin. • Connective tissue: state and staining. • Absence of the intra-cellular spaces which indicated shrinkage. • Absence of the features which indicated cell death.

Results

The histological specimens were obtained from a cadaveric tissue and therefore, special attention was paid to identify the features which indicated cell death. Cell death can be of two types: (1) Cell necrosis: Cell swelling and cell lysis are two characteristic features of this process and (2) Apoptosis: The characteristic features are- DNA fragmentation (the nucleus divides into several discrete fragments which are bounded by the nuclear membrane), decrease in cell volume, loss of mitochondrial function, membrane blebbing and formation of the apoptotic bodies. In the present study, there was no evidence of necrosis or apoptosis. Histologically, all the tissues showed excellent tissue organization and cellular detail. The nuclei, the cell membranes and the cytoplasmic details were clear and well preserved.

1. Skin (Table/Fig 1): The thick skin and the thin skin tissues were both taken for the study. The epidermis showed excellent cell detail. All the epithelial layers could be clearly appreciated: the stratum basale showed columnar cells with oval nuclei, the stratum spinosum was seen to be having polyhedral cells, the stratum granulosum was one to two cells thick and the keratohyaline granules were clearly visible and the stratum corneum was seen as the top most layer which consisted of cells which had lost their nuclei (keratinized cells). As expected, the layers, the stratum spinosum and thestratum corneum were thicker in the thick skin as compared to those in the thin skin. Hair follicles and sebaceous glands were abundantly seen in the thin skin. The dermis showed a preserved tissue architecture- a papillary dermis with fine interlacing collagen fibers and normal neurovascular structures was seen, while the reticular dermis showed coarse, irregularly arranged collagen bundles. Sweat glands and their ducts were seen.

Comparison score:
10. These slides were compared with those which were made from the tissues which were obtained from the live human body. The tissue architecture was very well preserved. The cellular outlines were sharp, with clear nuclear details. The basophilia in the basal layer and in the stratum granulosum was distinct.

2. Muscle:
The skeletal and the smooth muscles were studied in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse sections. The cardiac muscle tissue could not be studied.

a. Skeletal muscle:
i. Longitudinal section [Table/Fig-1 C1]: The skeletal muscle fibers were arranged parallel to each other. The fibers were elongated and cylindrical, with multiple peripheral nuclei. The endomysial connective tissue could be seen in between the fibers. There was shrinkage between the muscle bundles.

ii. Transverse section [Table/Fig-1 C2]: It clearly showed a delicate endomysium in between the individual muscle fibers. The muscle fibers appeared as polygonal profiles with flattening of the adjacent cells. The cross-sectional area of each fiber was approximately the same. Multiple peripheral nuclei were present. The wide endomysial spaces represented shrinkage artifacts. The perimysium was seen as a large amount of connective tissue which separated the bundles of muscle fibers which contained the small blood vessels.

Comparison score:
7. The tissue architecture was well preserved, but shrinkage artifacts in the form of increased tissue spaces were seen between the individual muscle fiber and the fiber bundles. The tissue was disrupted at one place. The intra-nuclear features were not so distinct. These changes might be due to tissue mishandling or they may indicate a poor fixation of the tissues.

b. Smooth muscle:
i. Transverse section: The cut sections of varying diameters were seen. The nucleus was not present in all the sections and when it was present, it was single, central and of different sizes. The spindle shape of the muscle fibers as well as their nuclei, were sectioned at different levels, resulting in transverse sections of different sizes of muscle fibers and their nuclei. The endomysium was clearly visible.

ii. Longitudinal section (Table/Fig 2): Spindle shaped muscle fibers were seen. In the centre of the myocyte, a single, central and fusiform nucleus was present.

Comparison score:
8. The fiber outline was sharp and the nuclei were distinct, but the intranuclear details were not clear and the nuclei were over stained.

3. Cartilage:
a. Hyaline cartilage (Table/Fig 3): Chondrocytes were present in groups, with a darker territorial matrix surroundingthese isogenous cell nests. Each chondrocyte was in the vacuole and it showed a distinct, small nucleus. The perichondrium was distinct and the morphological gradation of the chondrocytes extended from the inner region towards the outer region, in such a way that the outer most cells were like the fibroblasts.

Comparison score:
9. The tissue architecture is well preserved, with good cellular details. The intra nuclear chromatin pattern was not discernible.

b. Elastic cartilage (Table/Fig 3): This was taken from the ear pinna. The cartilage was much more cellular then the hyaline cartilage. The cells were not arranged in groups or as cell nests. Mostly, a single chondrocyte was seen in each lacuna. The surrounding matrix was deep staining. The perichondrium was present. On higher magnification, branching elastic fibers were seen in the matrix.

Comparison score:
9. The intra-nuclear chromatin pattern was not discernible.

4. Artery [Table/Fig-2C and D]: The specimen was taken from a muscular artery. The endothelial lining which consisted of squamous cells, was seen. The internal elastic lamina was very distinct. The tunica media predominantly consisted of smooth muscle fibers. The irregularly arranged collagen bundles of the tunica adventitia were well defined.

Comparison score:
9. The tissue was torn at one place, with the rent passing from the endothelium to the tunica media. This was possibly the result of tissue mishandling rather than a postmortem change.

5. Nerve: The tissue sample was taken from the ulnar nerve.

a. Longitudinal section (Table/Fig 4) : The nerve fascicles were seen enclosed in the perineurium. The fascicle contained many nerve fibers with nuclei in between. These nuclei were mostly Schwann cell nuclei, but some flat, elongated nuclei of the endoneurial fibroblasts were also seen.

b. Transverse section [Table/Fig-3 A2]: The complete nerve architecture in the form of the epineurium, perineurium and the endoneurium was seen. Transversely cut axons with poorly preserved myelin were seen. Several nuclei were seen as in the longitudinal section.

Comparison score:
8. The myelin preservation was not optimal and enlarged tissue spaces were observed.

6. Brain [Table/Fig-3 B1 and B2]: The specimen was taken from the cerebral hemisphere. The outermost molecular layer with predominant horizontal fibers was clearly demarcated. The subsequent layers had characteristic pyramidal cells as the main cell type. The size of the pyramidal cells increased progressively in layers 2, 3, 4 and 5. In these layers, the fibers were predominantly vertically disposed. Numerous stellate cells were seen, especially in layer 4.

Comparison score:
9. Clear areas were seen around some neuronal bodies; probably there were artifacts which were caused due to shrinkage during the tissue processing.

7. Trachea [Table/Fig-4A]: The wall of the trachea consisted of the mucosa, the submucosa, the hyaline cartilage and the adventitia. The mucosa showed a typical pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells, which was resting on a thick basement membrane. Beneath the basement membrane, the lamina propria was highly vascularand it showed diffuse lymphatic tissue. The loose submucosa contained numerous mixed seromucous glands. The hyaline cartilage was surrounded by a perichodrium which merged with the submucosa on one side and the adventitia on the other side.

Comparison score:
9. The tissue architecture was well preserved in all the layers. The glands showed mixed seromucous acini. The nuclei of the chondrocytes were clearly visible in the lacunae, with a clearly demarcated territorial and inter territorial matrix.

8. Liver [Table/Fig-4 B1 and B2] : The normal liver architecture in the form of the classical liver lobule, with a central vein and peripheral portal tracts, was appreciable. Hepatic cells were present as radiating plates which branched and anastomosed. The haepatocytes were polygonal and varied in size. Portal venules, branches of the hepatic artery and bile ductules were clearly seen in the portal tracts.

Comparison score: 10. The cellular details were well preserved, with the haepatocytes depicting a round nucleus with peripherally dispersed chromatin and prominent nucleoli.

9. Spleen [Table/Fig-4 C1,C2 and C3]: Under low magnification, the dense connective tissue capsule was found to enclose the spleen, with the trabeculae extending into the substance of the spleen. The white pulp constituted of the typical lymphatic nodules, with each nodule containing an eccentric arteriole. Under high magnification, the details of the red pulp in the form of splenic cords and intervening sinuses could be appreciated.

Comparison score: 10. The nuclear details were clear in the lymphocytes. All the layers of the arterioles were clearly demarcated.

10. Small intestine [Table/Fig-4 D1 and D2]: The mucosa showed distinctive villi, the lamina propria and the musularismucosae which separated the mucosa from the underlying submucosa. Tall columnar enterocytes and goblet cells covered the intestinal villi. The core of the villi was the extension of the lamina propria and it consisted of loose connective tissue. The muscularis externa and the serosa were seen.

Comparison score: 8. The cellular details were seen, but the nuclear details were not very clear. Increased tissue spaces were seen at a few places.

Discussion

Histology teaching is an important and integral part of the anatomy curriculum. The histological slides are usually prepared by using tissues which have been incidentally removed during surgical procedures, which have the obvious drawback of being limited and therefore, being an unreliable source. An alternative tissue source is animal tissue which is easily available, but it has different histological details as compared to the human tissue. Cadaveric tissue histology is not used in routine practice. Therefore, this need based study was proposed to standardize the histology of different tissue types of the human body which were obtained from the embalmed cadavers which were available in anatomy departments. There are sporadic reports on the use of cadaveric tissue for histology, especially for the study of specific disease processes. However, a detailed study of the cadaveric histology which encompasses all the tissue types which are present in different organs has not been published before. Alonso et al. (2009) reported the quantitative evaluation of inflammatory cells in the human temporo-mandibular joint tissues from patients with and without implants, by using normal cadaveric tissues for the control group (1). An anatomic and histological study of the coraco-humeral ligament (CHL) on cadaveric shoulders by Yang et al. (2009) determined the CHL’s histological features in comparison with the joint capsule and the coraco-acromial ligament (2). Lovering and Russ, (2008) described the fiber type composition of the cadaveric human rotator cuff muscles (3). To study the connective tissue degeneration in elderly strabismicpatients, Rutar and Demer, (2009) compared MRI scans with the histology of four cadaveric orbits (4). McGrath et al. (2009) utilized four large cadaveric tissue blocks to investigate the morphology of the long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL) and its potential relationship to the adjacent structures in the posterior sacroiliac region (5). Dagain et al. (2008) did an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of the junction between the great cerebral vein and the straight sinus in 25 human cadaveric brains (6).

All these sporadic studies authenticate the value of the cadaveric histology and underline the need to standardize it. In the present study, the integrity of each tissue type was assessed in detail. The tissue could be handled well during fixation and block making, as well as during staining. Histologically, all the tissues showed a normal tissue organization and cellular detail. The nuclei, the cell membranes and the cytoplasmic details were clear and well preserved, as has been detailed in the Results section. There was no evidence of necrosis or autolysis. This study showed that cadaveric tissue is suitable for histological studies. The cadaver is an ideal and unlimited source of tissue for research and teaching. The routine use of cadaveric tissue for the preparation of histologyslides would be of immense benefit to the anatomy departments for teaching students.

Key Message

The cadaveric tissue is suitable for histological studies. The cadaver is an ideal and unlimited source of tissue for research and teaching. There is a need to standardize the cadaveric tissue histology.

References

1.
Alonso A, Kaimal S, Look J, Swift J, Fricton J, Myers S, et al. A quantitative evaluation of the inflammatory cells in human temporomandibular joint tissues from patients with and without implants. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009; 67:788-96.
2.
Yang HF, Tang KL, Chen W, Dong SW, Jin T, Gong JC, et al. An anatomic and histologic study of the coracohumeral ligament. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2009; 18: 305-10.
3.
Lovering RM, Russ DW. The fiber type composition of the cadaveric human rotator cuff muscles. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008; 38:674-80.
4.
Rutar T, Demer JL. “Heavy Eye” syndrome in the absence of high myopia: A connective tissue degeneration in elderly, strabismic patients. J AAPOS. 2009; 13: 36-44.
5.
McGrath C, Nicholson H, Hurst P. The long posterior sacroiliac ligament: a histological study on the morphological relations in the posterior sacroiliac region. Joint Bone Spine. 2009; 76: 57-62.
6.
Dagain A, Vignes JR, Dulou R, Dutertre G, Delmas JM, Guerin J, et al. The junction between the great cerebral vein and the straight sinus: an anatomical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study on 25 human brain cadaveric dissections. Clin Anat. 2008; 21: 389-97.

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