Prevalence of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit and its Association with Scapular Dyskinesia and Rotator Cuff Strength Ratio in Collegiate Athletes Playing Overhead SportsCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Prateek Srivastav,
Assistant Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal-576104, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit (GIRD) indicates a 15° or greater loss of internal rotation of the throwing shoulder compared with the non-dominant shoulder.
Aim: To estimate the prevalence of GIRD in collegiate overhead sports player and determine whether GIRD is associated with scapular dyskinesia and rotator cuff strength ratio.
Materials and Methods: The present study was a Cross-sectional study. A total of 127 collegiate athletes were assessed for passive range of motion, external to internal rotation strength ratio (ER/IR ratio) and scapular dyskinesia for the throwing and non-throwing shoulder. Internal and external rotation of shoulder was measured using an inclinometer with the subject in prone and arm abducted to 90°. Scapular dyskinesia was measured using Lateral Scapula Slide test (LSST) and external to internal rotator strength was measured using a held hand isometric dynamometer. Chi-square test was used to find the association between GIRD and scapular dyskinesia and rotator cuff strength ratio.
Results: Prevalence of GIRD (n=37) was found to be 29.1%. GIRD was not found to be associated with Scapular dyskinesia (p=0.237) and ER/IR strength ratio (p=0.411).
Conclusion: Prevalence of GIRD in collegiate athletes playing overhead sports was found to be 29.1% and there was no association of GIRD with scapular dyskinesia, rotator cuff strength ratio.
Internal external rotators, Overhead athlete, Throwing adaptations, Throwing athlete, Throwing shoulder
Prateek Srivastav, Ganesh Balthillaya, Siddharth Bagrecha. PREVALENCE OF GLENOHUMERAL INTERNAL ROTATION DEFICIT AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SCAPULAR DYSKINESIA AND ROTATOR CUFF STRENGTH RATIO IN COLLEGIATE ATHLETES PLAYING OVERHEAD SPORTS. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2018 December [cited: 2018 Dec 14 ]; 12:YC01-YC04. Available from
Date of Submission: Jul 07, 2018
Date of Peer Review: Aug 10, 2018
Date of Acceptance: Sep 30, 2018
Date of Publishing: Dec 01, 2018
FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
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