Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Detected in Cervical Cytology Smears in Urban and Rural Population of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Anand Narain Srivastava,
Director Research, Department of Pathology, Era’s Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow-226003, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are very common in the young sexually active Indian women particularly in rural areas because of poor genital hygiene.
Aim: The present study was carried out to compare the prevalence of different STDs in the urban and rural population of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.
Materials and Methods: The present prospective observational study was conducted in 2369 rural women attending camps in 126 villages of West Lucknow between May 2013 and March 2017 undergoing cervical cancer screening and in 38,478 urban women attending Gynaecology Outpatient Department (OPD) of KG Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, between April 1971 to November 2005 in which the data were collected retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 18.0 and the results were subjected to chi-square test.
Results: The incidence of Candida albicans was higher in rural women (4.7%) as against 1.1% seen in urban cohorts. The trend was reverse with Trichomonas vaginalis, the incidence being high (2.9%) in the Urban women than 1.0% in the rural group. The viral STDs were rarely seen in both the groups ranging from 0.1% to 0.6%. Association of Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SILs) of the cervix with non-viral STDs was more pronounced in rural women than in their urban counterparts while this was very high with viral STDs in both the groups. All the STDs except HSV were commonly seen in younger sexually active women between 21-30 years. Leucorrhoea was commonly associated with all STDs in both groups but the incidence was almost double in rural women.
Conclusion: All the STDs examined were commonly seen in younger women between 21-30 years mostly with symptoms of leucorrhoea. Hence, cytological screening is felt mandatory in such women to rule out any STD infection.
Candida albicans, Cervical neoplasia, Human papillomavirus, Trichomonal infection
Jata Shankar Misra, Anand Narain Srivastava, Hem Prabha Gupta. PREVALENCE OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES DETECTED IN CERVICAL CYTOLOGY SMEARS IN URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION OF LUCKNOW, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2018 October [cited: 2019 Jan 24 ]; 12:QC07-QC11. Available from
Date of Submission: Oct 10, 2017
Date of Peer Review: Feb 27, 2018
Date of Acceptance: Jul 12, 2018
Date of Publishing: Oct 01, 2018
FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
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