Determination of Craniofacial Morphometry of Saudi Adults by Steiner’s AnalysisCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Ibadullah Kundi,
Associate Professor, Department of Preventive Dentistry, Orthodontic Division, College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Saudi Arabia.
Introduction: Evaluation of craniofacial morphology plays a vital role both in clinical practice and research purpose in dentistry and lateral cephalometric radiograph is the most commonly used and appropriate implement for the evaluation of craniofacial morphology.
Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the craniofacial morphometry of Saudi adults using Steiner’s angular and linear measurements and also to compare their mean values with the established values of Caucasian adults.
Materials and Methods: Eighty digital lateral cephalometric radiographs of Saudi adults including 43 males and 37 females with an average age of 22 years were studied. Patients with no craniofacial/skeletal abnormalities and no previous Orthodontic treatment were included in the study. Seventeen cephalometric landmarks were determined, 11 angular and 4 linear measurements of Steiner’s analysis were done using Cassos software. Error study was done on 20% of randomly selected cephalometric radiograph after two weeks of interval. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software version 22. Independent t-test was used to test the level of significance. p<0.05 considered as significant.
Results: Acceptable errors were observed using Dahlberg formula. The results of the present study revealed non-significant difference between the genders on almost all measured values. Saudi females showed larger SNA, SNB, ANB, SND, S to E, U6 to NA and L6 to NB (8 out of 15) than Saudi males. Mean values of cephalometric norms of Saudi adults were different than the Steiner’s established craniofacial morphometric norms.
Conclusion: The results revealed non-significant linear and angular differences in craniofacial morphometry among Saudi males and females. Measured craniofacial morphometry showed disparities between Caucasian established values.
Cephalometry, Craniofacial, Saudi arabia, Skeletal, Standards
Ibadullah Kundi, Harshal Kumar, Mohammad Khursheed Alam. DETERMINATION OF CRANIOFACIAL MORPHOMETRY OF SAUDI ADULTS BY STEINER’S ANALYSIS. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2019 January [cited: 2019 Jan 22 ]; 13:ZC45-ZC48. Available from
Date of Submission: Mar 20, 2018
Date of Peer Review: May 30, 2018
Date of Acceptance: Nov 14, 2018
Date of Publishing: Jan 01, 2019
FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
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