Assessment of Common Risk Factors Between Oral Diseases and Non-communicable Diseases in a Hospital-based Population in Kerala, India- A Cross-sectional StudyCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram,
Professor, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Amrita School of Dentistry, Amrita Vishwa Vidhya Peetham, Cochin-682041, Kerala, India.
Introduction: Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) have assumed epidemic proportions around the world. Oral diseases also pose tremendous physical and emotional burden on the people. Both these conditions (NCDs and oral diseases), are largely caused by a cluster of risk factors like tobacco, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol.
Aim: The objective of the study was to assess the common risk factors between Non- Communicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2 and stroke); and oral diseases.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 280 patients in four NCDs groups like cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2 and stroke. The risk factors for each of NCDs disease were assessed by their medical records, interview of the Physician and patients. In the same patients, oral disease risk factors were assessed and enumerated by clinical examination and a validated clinical questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used with the demographic data. Cohen’s Kappa was used to assess the degree of agreement for the risk factor to be common to both the NCDs and oral diseases.
Results: History of smoking was the most common risk factor between dental caries and diabetes mellitus type 2 (agreement of 15%).Cardiac valve abnormalities were a common risk factor between dental caries and stroke with a 31% degree of agreement. Diabetes as a common risk factor between dental caries and Myocardial Infarction (MI) had a degree of agreement of 44%.Asthma and oral diseases (dental caries and periodontal diseases) had obesity, history of smoking and positive family history as common risk factors.
Conclusion: Smoking is the most common risk factor across the oral diseases and all the six NCDs included in the study followed by family history, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes and excessive alcoholism. Thus, oral disease prevention programs can be integrated with the NCD prevention programs.
Dental caries, Lifestyle diseases, Oral disease surveillance, Periodontal diseases, Smoking
Chandrashekar Janakiram, Farheen Taha, Joe Joseph, Venkitachalam Ramanarayanan. ASSESSMENT OF COMMON RISK FACTORS BETWEEN ORAL DISEASES AND NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN A HOSPITAL-BASED POPULATION IN KERALA, INDIA- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2019 March [cited: 2019 Mar 25 ]; 13:ZC16-ZC20. Available from
Date of Submission: Aug 07, 2018
Date of Peer Review: Sep 14, 2018
Date of Acceptance: Jan 08, 2019
Date of Publishing: Mar 01, 2019
FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
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