Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

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Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
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I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2023 | Month : September | Volume : 17 | Issue : 9 | Page : BC01 - BC04 Full Version

Association of Adiponectin-Leptin Ratio and HOMA-IR in Obese Patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-sectional Study


Published: September 1, 2023 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2023/65235.18270
Mandeep Singh Saini, Jaskiran Kaur, Ravjit Kaur Sabharwal, Sahiba Kukreja, Jaswinder Kaur, Indira R Samal

1. Tutor, Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Jalandhar, Punjab, India. 2. Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India. 3. Professor and Head, Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Jalandhar, Punjab, India. 4. Professor and Head, Department of Biochemistry, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India. 5. Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Jalandhar, Punjab, India. 6. Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Jalandhar, Punjab, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Mandeep Singh Saini,
Tutor, Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Garha Road, Jalandhar-144006, Punjab, India.
E-mail: mannsaini567@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: Obesity is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality due to associated risk factors, including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Obese and diabetic patients have lower amounts of adiponectin. Leptin, a hormone released by adipocytes that controls hunger, is crucial in the emergence of obesity. Furthermore, it has been claimed that the Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio (ALR) correlates with Insulin Resistance (IR) better than adiponectin or leptin alone.

Aim: To evaluate adiponectin, leptin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) in obese subjects with and without T2DM and compare the variations, if any, from the normal subjects.

Materials and Methods: This hospital-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at Sri Guru Ram Das (SGRD) University of Health Sciences, Amritsar, and Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Jalandhar from January 2020 to December 2022. A total of 125 subjects of either gender aged above 18 years, visiting the medicine Outpatient Department (OPD) of PIMS, Jalandhar, were included in the study. Among them, 25 healthy volunteers served as controls. Serum levels of Adiponectin, Leptin, and Insulin were estimated using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The data obtained were statistically analysed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test (with Bonferroni post-hoc).

Results: A total of 125 participants were analysed in the present study, with 50 being obese with T2DM (mean age: 50.22±8.6 years), 50 being obese without T2DM (mean age: 46.9±9.8 years), and 25 being non obese non diabetic individuals (controls) (mean age: 42.8±9.09 years). A higher number of females 78 (62.4%) reported to the OPD compared to males 47 (37.6%). Although no statistical significance was found, there was a considerable decrease in adiponectin levels in obese and obese with T2DM subjects. Moreover, the leptin levels and HOMA-IR were increased in obese and obese with T2DM subjects compared to the control subjects.

Conclusion: ALR may be used as a clinical marker for assessing the morbidity due to obesity and in T2DM subjects. Moreover, lifestyle modifications can be targeted to prevent IR.

Keywords

Adipose tissue, Glycated haemoglobin, Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, Insulin levels

Obesity, a multifactorial disease, is defined as an increase in body weight beyond the requirements of the skeletal physical structure (1). It is a significant risk factor for a number of non communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, hypertension, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in particular (2). Urbanisation and declining physical activity, leading to obesity, are major factors in the emergence of T2DM (3). However, T2DM has a strong correlation with obesity, and the number of people with diabetes attributable to obesity is anticipated to double to 300 million by 2025 (4). Abnormalities in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, resulting from deficiencies in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both, are hallmarks of T2DM (5).

Studies have shown that differences in adipose tissue cellularity also play a significant role in the development of obesity (6),(7). The energy status and deposition of the adipose deposit appear to affect the pattern of adipocytokine secretion (1). Furthermore, changes in adipokine secretion due to shifts in energy reserves also influence metabolism and contribute to metabolic diseases, including T2DM. Hence, it is crucial for clinicians to treat obesity in patients with DM because even a small weight loss of 3-5% improves glucose tolerance and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), reduces the need for glucose-lowering medications, and prevents prediabetes from progressing to T2DM (8).

Out of the two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, the latter is widely prevalent in the body. This proteinaceous hormone with 244 amino acids plays a crucial role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, speeds up the oxidation of fatty acids, and improves insulin sensitivity, thereby lowering levels of blood sugar, free fatty acids, and triglycerides (9). It is also observed that low levels of adiponectin are linked to an increased risk of developing obesity-related co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease (10). Additionally, because adiponectin also functions as an insulin-sensitising hormone in the liver and muscles, low levels of adiponectin exacerbate obesity-related peripheral insulin resistance (11).

In 1994, scientists identified leptin, a protein predominantly produced by white adipose tissue (12). The increase in circulating leptin levels causes hypothalamic leptin resistance, which suppresses anorexigenic and energy expenditure signals and exacerbates obesity (11). Leptin levels are high in obese individuals who are leptin resistant and are directly correlated with fat mass (13). Recently, a new biomarker of adipose tissue dysfunction called the ALR has shown a negative correlation with Body Mass Index (BMI). Furthermore, it has been reported that in individuals with hyperglycaemia, the ALR correlates more strongly with insulin resistance (IR) than adiponectin, leptin, or even HOMA-IR (13). ALR can act as an independent measure of IR in people with T2DM (14).

IR, the inability of a known amount of insulin to improve glucose uptake and utilisation, is a common pathophysiological problem (15). Understanding the pathogenesis of IR is becoming increasingly important as a guide to future therapy, as well as health and economic policies (16). HOMA-IR, a reliable measure of IR, is an independent predictor of T2DM, and obesity is often the primary factor contributing to elevated HOMA-IR scores (17). Although many studies have been done on leptin and adiponectin (18),(19), there is a paucity of data on their association with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Moreover, this type of study has not been done in Punjab, India. Besides lifestyle management, it is also crucial for clinicians to fully comprehend adipokines. This will aid in developing newer preventive and therapeutic interventions for obesity and its related co-morbidities.

Thus, present study was done to estimate serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, and to calculate ALR and HOMA-IR in obese subjects with and without T2DM, as well as non obese, non diabetic individuals (controls) and also to study the association between these biomarkers in obese subjects with and without T2DM, as well as non obese, non diabetic individuals (controls).

Material and Methods

This hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted at SGRD University of Health Sciences, Amritsar, in collaboration with the Outpatient Department (OPD) patients of PIMS, Jalandhar, Punjab, India from January 2020 to December 2022. The study was approved by the Research and Ethical committees of the institution (Ref No: Patho 691/19, dated 21-10-2019). Informed consent was also obtained from all the participants.

Inclusion criteria: Obese patients with and without T2DM, of either gender, above 18 years of age, and visiting the Medicine OPD of Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Jalandhar, were included as cases. Participants with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were considered obese, and those with a BMI <25 kg/m2 were considered non obese according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Asia Pacific guidelines (20). The American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2019 criteria were used for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (21). Non obese and non diabetic individuals of either gender, above 18 years of age, were taken as control subjects.

Exclusion criteria: Pregnant and lactating women, patients with liver and renal diseases, hypothyroidism, malignancy, chronic congestive heart failure, and various haematological abnormalities (including significant anaemia) were excluded from the study. Patients with T1DM, on insulin, and on anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, and steroids were also excluded from the study.

Sample size: Diwan AG et al., compared serum levels of leptin in diabetics and non diabetics and found that serum leptin levels were significantly higher (17.35±11.60 U/mL) in diabetic subjects compared to non-diabetic ones (11.19±5.71 U/mL) (p-value ≤0.045) (22). This data was used in the following formula to calculate sample size:

n= (Zα/2+Zβ)2*(SD*2)/d2
n= Sample size
Zα/2= Z value at 5% error (1.96)
Zβ= Z value at 10% (1.28)
SD= Average standard deviation of leptin among diabetics and non-diabetics=(SD1+SD2)/2
d=effect size

The above values were entered into G*Power version 3.1 software. The effect size was calculated to be 0.6737. The software calculated the sample size in obese individuals with diabetes and obese individuals without diabetes to be 48 each. Additionally, 25 healthy individuals were included as a control group. The unequal sample size for the control group was due to stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria applied to them. Nevertheless, it was ensured that for statistical comparisons, the unequal sample size was taken into account.

Data collection: A fasting blood sample (5 mL) was collected under aseptic conditions by venipuncture, and investigations were 2performed using Roche 311, Roche 411, and ELISA reader (Erba LisaScan II). Serum Adiponectin, Leptin, and Insulin were assayed by ELISA using kits from Diagnostic Biochem Canada and Qualisa.

Normal values: Reference values for Adiponectin were as follows:

• BMI <25 kg/m 2 = 3.4-19.5 μg/mL
• BMI 25-30 kg/m 2 = 2.6-13.7 μg/mL
• BMI >30 kg/m 2 = 1.8-9.4 μg/mL (23)

Expected normal values for Leptin were as follows:

•Lean women = 3.7-11.1 ng/mL
• Lean men = 2.0-5.6 ng/mL (24)

Normal expected values of leptin for lean people were mentioned in the kit insert. No specific range was established and mentioned in the kit insert regarding obese people, but leptin levels are higher than normal expected values in obese individuals (24).
Expected normal values for insulin were as follow:
Adult (normal) = 0.7-9.0 μIU/mL
Diabetic (Type 2) = 0.7-25 μIU/mL (25)

Statistical Analysis

Statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., USA). The data obtained were statistically analysed using mean±SD. Mean values of parameters were compared among the three study groups using a one-way ANOVA test (with Bonferroni post-hoc). The Chi-square test was used for categorical variables.

Results

Out of a total of 125 subjects included in the study, 50 (40%) were obese, 50 (40%) were obese with T2DM, and 25 (20%) were non obese non diabetic (controls). A higher number of females reported in the OPD compared to males. The maximum number of subjects in the obese with T2DM group (n=30, 60%) and obese without T2DM group (n=20, 40%) were in the age group of 51-60 years, whereas in the control (non obese non diabetic) group, the age range was 31-50 years (Table/Fig 1).

It was observed that levels of serum adiponectin and ALR were lower, whereas serum leptin levels were higher in the obese with T2DM group and obese without T2DM group compared to controls (Table/Fig 2).

It was observed that levels of serum insulin, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), HbA1c, and HOMA-IR were higher in the obese with T2DM group compared to the obese without T2DM and control group. Moreover, on comparing the obese without T2DM group with the control group, it was seen that the levels of insulin and HOMA-IR were higher in the former group, whereas FBS and HbA1c values did not show any change (Table/Fig 3).

Discussion

The epidemiological transformation in India, from an underweight to an overweight/obese population, is occurring quickly. Obesity has become a significant global concern due to lifestyle modifications brought about by urbanisation. Changes in the lifestyle of a genetically predisposed population, particularly regarding eating habits and physical exercise, have been associated with a high prevalence of obesity and T2DM in Xavante Indians (26). Obesity is often associated with a proinflammatory endocrine profile, which contributes to the development of metabolic complications such as IR and T2DM (27). It has also been demonstrated that obesity leads to decreased sensitivity or resistance to various hormones, including adiponectin and leptin (27). Numerous studies have shown that a majority of individuals with prediabetes eventually progress to diabetes, and overweight or obese individuals with sedentary lifestyles are at a higher risk of experiencing this progression [28,29]. Research indicates that obese individuals have lower serum levels of adiponectin compared to non obese individuals, which was consistent with the results of present study (29). In present study, both obese and obese T2DM participants had significantly lower mean serum levels of adiponectin compared to the control group.

Adiponectin levels are down-regulated not only in obese individuals but also in people with T2DM, as it plays a significant role in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. However, adipocytokines like leptin are positively correlated with obesity (30). Several research studies have noted a significant relationship between inflammatory mediators such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), adiponectin, and obesity indices, particularly BMI. Previous researchers have found an inverse relationship between adiponectin and BMI (28). Furthermore, weight loss and a decrease in BMI in the obese group were accompanied by a significant increase in serum adiponectin levels (28).

Similarly, there is a negative correlation between adiponectin levels and the risk of developing T2DM. A cohort study conducted on a middle-aged female population showed an inverse relationship between adiponectin levels and the risk of developing T2DM (31). Additionally, a meta-analysis study indicated that high levels of adiponectin were associated with a lower risk of T2DM (32). These results suggest a biological relationship between obesity and T2DM, indicating that increasing adiponectin levels may help improve insulin sensitivity (29). However, the relationship between insulin and adiponectin levels and their control over each other is still a subject of debate (30).

Leptin, which is produced by adipocytes in response to changes in body fat mass and nutritional status, plays a role in the obesity-related production of low-grade inflammation (33). Both leptin and adiponectin regulate blood glucose through different mechanisms. In present study, an increased risk of developing T2DM and obesity when leptin levels increased and adiponectin levels decreased was observed. A previous study revealed that circulating levels of leptin are proportional to the degree of obesity, which was consistent with present findings (30). It has been observed that leptin levels decrease rapidly with calorie restriction. However, the role of leptin as an antiobesity hormone has been questioned because in "common" obesity, high levels of leptin (indicating high energy stores) are often present, and leptin resistance is observed. This suggests that despite elevated levels of leptin, obese individuals may not reduce their caloric intake due to leptin resistance (29). The ALR has been shown to be a more accurate indicator of IR than either adiponectin or leptin alone, and it is also more accurate than the HOMA-IR (31). Therefore, present study determined this ratio in subjects who were obese with and without T2DM. When compared to the control group, the ALR was found to be lower in both obese and obese diabetic subjects. Consistent with the results of the present investigation, a population-based cohort study demonstrated that individuals with obesity and T2DM had lower ALR than non obese individuals. Abnormal adipocytokine profiles are associated with obesity and T2DM (14).

The use of HOMA-IR to understand β-cell function and IR in various disorders related to obesity and diabetes mellitus has been extensively researched (34). HOMA-IR calculation has been the most commonly used method in several studies evaluating insulin sensitivity [35,36]. de Luis DA et al., found a significant positive association between HOMA-IR and BMI, with obese individuals having higher HOMA-IR values than those with normal BMI (37). In a cross-sectional investigation of Taiwanese participants, the Leptin-Adiponectin Ratio (LAR) and leptin were positively correlated with the HOMA-IR index, while adiponectin had a negative correlation (38). Lower IR, as measured by HOMA-IR, was associated with a lower risk of developing T2DM in obese individuals in the predominantly Caucasian Framingham Offspring Study, whereas higher insulin resistance predicted an increased risk of T2DM in non obese subjects (39). Present study showed that HOMA-IR levels increased in obese individuals, and this increase became more pronounced as obesity progressed to T2DM. Therefore, dysregulated glucose homeostasis, specifically HOMA-IR, is crucial for early detection and prediction of T2DM in obese children and adolescents, and may enable early disease management (40).

Further studies are needed to evaluate the mechanisms by which levels of adiponectin and leptin are altered in the population. Additionally, the potential use of these markers in the management and prevention of obesity-related metabolic disorders such as T2DM should be investigated. Since the subjects included in the study were randomly selected, there was a significant difference in the age distribution of the subjects. Future studies should aim to determine the effect of age on these biochemical parameters, ensuring that the age of subjects is equally distributed among different age groups.

Limitation(s)

The study’s limitation was that the obese participants were from a local set-up. Selecting subjects from diverse regions of Punjab could have provided more insights into the study outcome, as lifestyle and food patterns vary. More in-depth research should be conducted in a larger population to validate the results.

Conclusion

According to this study, it was observed that there were changes in the levels of adiponectin, leptin, and HOMA-IR in subjects with obesity and obesity with T2DM as compared to non-obese non-diabetic individuals. Low serum adiponectin and ALR, high serum leptin and HOMA-IR levels are associated with an increased risk of obesity with T2DM. Adiponectin and leptin can be important clinical markers for assessing the morbidity and complications of obesity and T2DM. Further research is needed to study factors such as lifestyle modifications, dietary changes, and weight loss. Additionally, it is important to investigate factors that increase adiponectin levels and enhance ALR to aid clinicians in the timely management of obesity and prevent T2DM and its complications. These studies can further inform physicians in formulating therapeutic strategies.

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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2023/65235.18270

Date of Submission: May 08, 2023
Date of Peer Review: Jun 01, 2023
Date of Acceptance: Jun 23, 2023
Date of Publishing: Sep 01, 2023

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: May 10, 2023
• Manual Googling: Jun 01, 2023
• iThenticate Software: Jun 22, 2023 (13%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

EMENDATIONS: 7

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