Understanding the Essentials of Pharmacogenomics- The Potential Implications for the Future Pharmacotherapy
P.Subish M. Pharm, Assistant Professor, Department of Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy / Pharmacology, Manipal Teaching Hospital/ Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Phulbari-11, Pokhara, Nepal. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Phone 00977-61-526420
The genetic makeup affects drug responses to a greater extend. Personalized medicine deals with the prescription of specific therapeutic agent best suited for an individual based on the pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information. By understanding the genetic variations in an individual, it becomes easy for a clinician to select the appropriate drug in an adequate dose. Genetic variations can influence drug action in many ways, the common ones being the drug metabolizing enzyme (CYP450), the site of drug action (receptors), and at the drug transporter levels (p-glycoprotein). Safety and efficacy of many commonly prescribed drugs like aspirin, isoniazid, omeprazole, warfarin, hydralazine etc are affected by the genetic makeup of individuals. Similarly, the pharmacotherapy of common diseases like asthma, hypertension, depression etc is also influenced by genetic variations. Pharmacogenomics can also offer benefits like proper determination of drug dosage, and production of better vaccines and can definitely reduce the healthcare costs and helps to enable drug safety by understanding the genetic profile of an individual. Integration of pharmacogenomic information into clinical practice will also require clinical trials to assess their clinical usefulness. The usefulness of pharmacogenomic data also depends upon the affordability, ease of application, and ease of interpreting the results etc.