Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Girls In Rural Areas Of Ratnagiri District Of Maharashtra India.
Dr.Vinod Wasnik,Community Health
Community Health Department
B.K.L.Walawalkar Hospital Diagnostic &
Research Centre Shreekshetra Dervan,Tal: Chiplun,Dist: Ratnagiri
41560 Maharashtra, INDIA.Phone :( 02355) 264137,264149,Fax: 02355-264181
Adolescent constitute over 21.4 % of the population in India. This period needs special attention because of turmoil of adolescence faces due to different stages of development, different circumstances, different needs and diverse problems. The psychosocial and emotional problems are of considerable magnitude and they may exert significant influence on their nutritional status. Unfortunately assessment of nutritional status of adolescent girls has been the least explored area of research particularly in rural India
â€¢To assess the Nutritional problems amongst the adolescent girls.
â€¢To find out the reproductive problems amongst the adolescent girls.
â€¢To suggest the recommendation based on Study findings.
Methods:The approach adopted for this community based study was cross sectional one. One Community Development Block (i.e. Chiplun) was selected from nine CD Block of the Ratnagiri District by simple random sampling. Anganwadi centre of Chiplun were stratified into 3 strata according to distance Viz. < 15 Km, 15-30 Km and > 30 Km) from Institute and from each stratum three bit were selected by simple random sampling. In the selected Anganwadi centre three adolescent girls were selected. This served as the sampling frame. The information on age, Weight, Height, BMI, Socioeconomic status, menstrual problems, and reproductive problems were assessed. The hemoglobin concentration as well as MCHC was measured. The data was collected and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0.
Results: The mean age of the study subjects was calculated to be 16.9 years. Most (77.6) of the subjects were students followed by school dropout (22.4). As per Proposed Asian and WHO criteria, 67.8% & 69.3% adolescent girls were under weight (BMI < 18.5). Adolescent girls who were categorized as overweight by Proposed Asian (23 to 24.9 kg/m2) and Previous WHO (25-29.9 kg/m 2) criteriaâ€™s were 2 % and 2.4% respectively. As much as 41.9% study subjects were anaemic (Hb < 12 gm %) as per WHO guidelines. It was found that 68.9% (MCHC < 34 %) of the study subjects were showed hypochromic red cells suggesting Iron deficiency anaemia. The mean age of the menarche was found to be 13.7 years. As far as problems related to menstruation cycle were concerned Dysmenorrhea (44.2%) was the commonest problems faced by adolescent girls. Irregular menses 16.9%, Irritation-21.7%, Malaise â€“ 9.5% , Headchae-14.2, chest pain- 8.2% , abdominal bloating 20.3% , constipation- 11.3%, tightness in chest 10.6%. White discharge-38.3 %.
Conclusion: The study concludes that majority of the girls had clinically obvious nutritional deficiency diseases. Two third of study subjects were undernourished (BMI <18.5 kg/m 2). The prevalence of anaemia among the adolescent girls was found to be 41%.There was a significant association of anaemia with educational status of adolescent girls. Majority more than three fourth of the adolescent girls were suffering from menstrual related problems which leads to reproductive morbidities. Adolescents are expected to enjoy a good health but this does not seem to be in rural areas of developing country like India, where poverty, malnutrition and repeated infection are rampant. To achieve the optimum health and development of the adolescent segment of the population. There is a need to introduce a comprehensive Adolescent Health Initiative (AHI) at block level.