A Study Of The Risk Factors And The Prevalence Of Hypertension In The Adolescent School Boys Of Ahmedabad City
Dr. M. Iqbal Khan
Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine,
Geetanjali Medical College, Manwa Kheda ,NH-8 By-pass
Background: Hypertension is one of the diseases which is less commonly diagnosed and treated, but its actual prevalence is high. The association between the presence of risk factors and the development of disease has been well documented. The present study was conducted to find out the risk factors and to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension among the adolescent school boys of Ahmedabad city.
Aims: 1.To study the distribution of blood pressure among the adolescent boys who were aged 12-19 years.
2. To find out the association between the prevalence of hypertension and itâ€™s risk factors.
Settings and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted from Feb. 2007 to August 2008 in secondary and higher secondary schools in 5 zones of the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation.
Methods and Material: A predesigned and pretested proforma was filled by the students after the purpose of the study was explained to them. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded as per the standard WHO guidelines.1093 proformas were analyzed after excluding the incomplete proformas. Hypertension was diagnosed when the BP exceeded two standard deviations (i.e.95th percentile) above the mean pressure for the population. BMI was used as a measure of obesity and it was derived by using the standard formula for it.
Statistical Analysis: The collected information was analyzed by using the Microsoft Excel and the Epi info 3.4 softwares. Chi-square test was used for analysis.
Results and Conclusions:
Out of 1093 adolescent boys, 107 (9.78 %) were found to be hypertensive. The highest prevalence was found at 19 years of age (21.7 %). Of the 107 hypertensive boys, 42 (39.2 %) had both systolic and diastolic hypertension. The mean SBP among the participants was 109.6 mm Hg and the mean DBP was 69.3 mmHg. The family history of HT and the presence of overweight and obesity in boys were found to be associated significantly. No association was found between hypertension and other risk factors like added salt, junk food and the socioeconomic class. Among the hypertensive adolescents, the risk factors which were found to have the highest prevalence were the intake of junk food (90.6%), followed by higher socio-economic class (48.5%), extra salt in the diet (29.9%) and overweight and obesity (20.3%).