Urinary Tract Infections, Pelvic Inflamatory Disease, Hepatitis B, And Diabetes Mellitus Among Women Of The Reproductive Ages In A Developing Nation
Paul Andrew Bourne, Director, Socio-Medical Research Institute, Kingston, Jamaica (Formerly, Biostatistician and Social Demographer, Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica; Email: email@example.com. Tel: (876) 457-6990.
Background: With the high prevalence of cervical cancer, sexually transmitted infections, in particular HIV/AIDs, in developing countries, there is a need to examine pelvic inflamatory diseases or urinary tract infections, Hepatitis B, diabetes mellitus and factors which explain pelvic inflamatory diseases or urinary tract infections. No single study has emerged in the developing world, which has explored all these issues.
Aims: The present study sought to elucidate information on pelvic inflamatory diseases or urinary tract infections among Jamaican women in reproductive ages, as well as Hepatitis B, diabetes mellitus, and factors which accounted for pelvic inflamatory diseases or urinary tract infections.
Setting and design: Stratified random sampling was used to design the sample, and a three-stage sampling design was used.
Methods and material: The current study used secondary survey data. An administered questionnaire was completed by a random sample of 7,168 females. Statistical analysis used: The Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows, Version 16.0 (SPSS Inc; Chicago, IL, USA) was used to analyse the data. Multiple logistic regressions were used to model the factors which explained pelvic inflamatory diseases or urinary tract infections.
Results: Twelve percentages of study respondents indicated that they have had pelvic inflamatory diseases or urinary tract infections. Nine variables emerged as statistically associated with urinary tract infections or pelvic inflamatory diseases: forced to have sexual intercourse (Odds ratio, OR, = 22.73, 95% CI = 2.86 â€“ 180.56), education (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.19 â€“ 3.25), Pap smear examination (OR = 9.38, 95% CI = 1.05 â€“ 84.21), partner main source of financial support (OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.02 â€“ 0.58), Hepatitis B (OR = 7.31, 95% CI = 0.92 â€“ 54.92), number of miscarriages (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.02 â€“ 1.48), number of abortions (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.49 â€“ 2.73), and social hierarchy.
Conclusion: Sexual activity, inconsistent condom usage, and pelvic inflamatory diseases or urinary tract infections are a part of the reality among females of the reproductive age, and within the context of low Pap smear or pelvic examination, public health practitioners need to implement programmes to address these concerns.