Comparative Study of Processing of Haemorrhagic Body Fluids by Using Different Techniques 2186-2188
Dr. Sangeeta Sharma,
Professor, Department of Pathology, Subhartimedical College, NH 28, Meerut, UP, India.
Background: Haemorrhagic fluids are samples which are commonly received for cytological examination. The diagnostic efficacy suffers when large numbers of red blood cells are present in the sample. Haemorrhagic fluids are processed by a variety of techniques and the common goal of each technique is selection and concentration of an adequate number of tumour cells with intact cell morphologies, without losing them during processing.
Aim: Present study was undertaken to improve the quality of haemorrhagic fluid by using three different haemolysing agents, namely Carnoyâ€™s Fixative (CF), saline in Normal Saline Rehydration Technique (NSRT) and Glacial Acetic Acid (GAA) for haemolysis and to find out the most effective processing technique for better cytomorphological assessment.
Material and Methods: This study was carried out on 51 haemorrhagic fluids. Processing of haemorrhagic fluid was done by using haemolysing agents, namely CF, GAA and NSRT. After processing fluids with these three techniques, three smears were prepared from each of them, out of which one was air dried and two were wet fixed. Fourth type of smear made without application of haemolysing agent was used as control.The smears were stained with Leishmanâ€™s stain and wet fixed smears were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin ( H and E) , and Papanicolouâ€™s stain (Pap) respectively.
Results: NSRT showed lysis of red blood cells (RBCs) in 72.5% of cases, followed by that of CF in 60.8% cases and that of GAA in only 3.9% of cases. Retention of epithelial/mesothelial cells was seen in 70.5% cases with NSRT, followed by that of CF in 57.8% of cases and then by that of GAA in 50.9% of cases. Cytomorphological details were best preserved in CF in 60.6% of cases, followed by GAA in 58.8% of cases and NSRT in 52.9% of cases.
Conclusion: The most effective method for RBC lysis in smear background and cell retention is NSRT and cytomorphological details are best preserved with CF. But, considering the overall results and procedural simplicity, it was concluded that NSRT was a better technique for processing of haemorrhagic fluid.