Leukostasis in an Adult with AML Presenting as Multiple High Attenuation Brain Masses on CT 3020-3022
Dr. Alexander Mamourian,
219 Dulles, 3400 Spruce St., Philadelphia, PA 19104.
Phone: 215 662 6865, Fax: 215 662 3283, E-mail: Alexander.Mamourian@uphs.upenn.edu
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic malignancy that can present with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms. Neurological symptoms may result from the local accumulation of malignant cells in or near the brain (chloroma), infection, hemorrhage, or infarcts from leukostasis. Leukostasisis a syndrome that can include brain infarction due hyperviscosity of blood with vascular occlusion but CNS involvement is rarely encountered in adults. We report an unusual case of leukostasis in an adult who presented with multiple high attenuation intracranial masses on CT. While initially thought to represent chloromasthey proved to be hemorrhagic infarcts secondary toleukostasis on open brain biopsy. This condition is under-reported in the radiology literature and only rarely biopsy proven. We review in this paper the pathological, CT, and MRfindings of leukostasis in order to increase awareness of this uncommon entity and facilitate diagnosis.