Blood Arsenic and Cadmium Concentrations in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients who were on Maintenance Haemodialysis
Dr. Subha Palaneeswari M,
Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry,
Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chrompet, Chennai-
600 044, India.
Background: In India, there is a rising burden of chronic diseases like hypertension and diabetes. It has been estimated that 25-40% of these patients are likely to develop chronic kidney disease (CKD), with a significant percentage requiring renal replacement therapy. Haemodialysis is the most common method which is used to treat advanced and permanent kidney failure. Derangements in the metabolism of several toxic and trace elements such as antimony, arsenic cadmium, molybdenum, nickel, and selenium have been reported for several decades in patients with chronically reduced renal functions. Overall, the available literature suggests that the blood levels of some elements such as cadmium, chromium, fluorine, iodine, lead, or vanadium are high in end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Aim and Objectives: Our aim was to study the levels of blood arsenic and cadmium in ESRD patients who were on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD), and to study whether there was any relationship between their concentrations and the duration of the MHD.
Methods: The blood lead levels were determined in 50 healthy subjects with normal renal functions and in 50 patients with ESRD, who were on MHD. None of them had any history of smoking or any industrial exposure.
Results: The results of the study revealed that the blood arsenic and cadmium concentrations were higher in the ESRD patients who were on MHD than in the healthy adults. The blood arsenic and cadmium concentrations were found to increase with the duration of the MHD.
Conclusion: The mild increase in the blood arsenic and cadmium concentrations, with an increase in the duration of the MHD in the study population, may be viewed in the wider context, that a prolonged exposure to arsenic and cadmium, even at low levels, may result in renal damage and/or progression of an already existing CKD.