Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis and the Profile of the CD4 Counts in a Cohort of HIV Infected Patients 1016-1020
Dr. Rashmi K.S.,
Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology,
No 53, Sree Nilayam, I Cross, D block ,
Krishna Garden, R V college Post,
Background: Cryptosporidium is an infectious enteric pathogen which is capable of causing life-threatening illnesses in immunocompromised patients. Aims: This prospective study was planned to know the frequency of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in HIV infected patients and its correlation with their immune status. Also, the conventional diagnostic methods were compared with the copro-antigen detection test by using Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA).
Settings and Design: This was a prospective cohort study.
Methods and Material: Three consecutive stool samples which were collected from 90 HIV seropositive patients and 50 seronegative controls were screened for cryptosporidiosis by wet mount, direct modified ZN (Ziehl Neelsen) staining, modified ZN staining with formol ether concentration and copro-antigen detection by ELISA. Their immune statuses were measured by CD4 + cell counting. Statistical Analytical Tests which were Used: Odds ratio, Chi square test, Fisher extract test.
Results: Cryptosporidiosis was detected in 15 HIV seropositive cases. 13 cases had CD4 cell counts of < 100 cells/ ÂµL. The formol ether concentration technique resulted in an increased number of oocysts/oil immersion field in 8 cases. ELISA was positive in 2 cases which were shown to be negative by modified ZN staining. All the controls were negative for cryptosporidium.
Conclusions: Cryptosporidiosis is an opportunistic infection in HIV infected people who present with diarrhoea. The wet mount technique, though it is simple and inexpensive, is insensitive for the detection of cryptosporidium. The conventional modified ZN staining and the modified ZN staining with concentration have a sensitivity and a specificity of 85.71% and 98.84% respectively. The copro antigen detection by ELISA which has a greater sensitivity and specificity, is a useful tool in epidemiological studies.