A Prospective Study on the Antimicrobial Usage in the Medicine Department of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital
Dr Farhan Ahmad Khan,
Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology,
Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College & Research
Centre, TMU, Moradabad, India.
Introduction: As we know, some of the species of animals are endangered, as there is an increase in their declining rate and a decrease in their survival rate. The same is true for the antibiotics also, as there is a rise in the antimicrobial resistance and a decline in the development of new antibiotics. Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) has become a major obstacle in the way of the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. Therefore, to fight against AMR, antibiotic utilisation studies are being carried out. Therefore, with the same perspective, this prospective study was done to evaluate the current usage of the anti-microbial agents in medicine department of a teaching hospital in northern India.
Methods: This was a prospective study which was done for a period of three months from Nov 2012 â€“ Jan 2013. The prescriptions and the patient records are reviewed and analysed. The rationality of the drug usage was also evaluated by analysing the drug prescriptions.
Results: Out of the 494 drugs which were prescribed to 180 patients, 291 were antibiotics. The most commonly used AMAs were the ÃŸ-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins) â€“n = 102, followed by the quinolones â€“n = 93, Nitroimidazoles â€“n = 43, aminoglycosides â€“n = 35 and the macrolides â€“n = 18. The most common indication for the antimicrobial therapy was infection. According to the evaluation, the use of the antimicrobial therapy was found to be rational in 77.77 per cent patients. The average number of antibacterial agents which were prescribed per patient per course was found to be 1.61 and the average numbers of drugs which were prescribed per patient were 2.74.The average cost per prescription per day was Rs.115 and the average antibiotic cost per encounter was Rs. 85.
Conclusion: Antibiotic resistance is increasing at an alarming rate due to the irrational prescribing habits of physicians, leading to increasing morbidity, mortality and treatment costs. Therefore, the medical professionals as well as government personnel who are related to the health sector, need to understand that antibiotics are precious and finite resources. The remedy of this situation requires that regular educational awareness programmes should be conducted in hospitals at a regular basis.