The Incidence of Secretory Otitis
Media in Cases of Cleft Palate
Dr D Sridhara Narayanan,
Assistant Professor, Department of ENT & HNS,
Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital, Works Road Chromepet,
Chennai-600044, Tamil Nadu, India.
Objective: Children with a Cleft Palate (CLP) and with or without cleft lips (non-syndromic) universally present with Secretory Otitis Media (SOM). The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of secretory otitis media that occurs in patients with cleft palates and to confirm the existence of these manifestations by doing a Basic Audiologic Evaluation (BAE).
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done on forty four male and female children who were within the 2 to 14 years age range, with non-syndromic cleft palates with or without cleft lips, with the symptoms of SOM. Otoscopy examinations were done in all the cases. X-rays of the mastoids (both sides) were done in all the cases to detect the pneumatization of the mastoid air cell system. The Basic Audiologic Evaluation (BAE) includes an evaluation by tympanometry of the middle ear function and an evaluation by pure tone audiometry to establish the type of hearing loss.
Results: A majority of the patients (47.27%) were in the age group of eight-to-fourteen (8-14) years. The Basic Audiologic Evaluation (BAE) revealed that 77.27% of the children had presented with normal hearing; 13.6% had conductive hearing loss and 2.2% had presented with a mixed hearing loss. We noticed that 68.2% of the children had type A curves; 21.2% of the children had type C tympanometry curves; 7.1% had type B curves and 3.5% had Ad curves. The contralateral acoustic reflex was present in 54.5% of the children and 45.5% did not have this reflex. A majority of the patients (46%) showed sclerotic changes in their mastoid air cell systems in the X-rays of the mastoids.
Conclusion: The significantly higher prevalence of SOM in the children with cleft was confirmed by the study. Also, the hearing loss which was associated with SOM was evident and it demonstrated that there was a high prevalence of a mild conductive hearing loss when SOM was present. The cleft palate contributed to the occurrence of the secretory otitis media and it required proper ENT and audiological follow ups.