Changing Trends in Resistance
Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Dr. Arunava Kali,
Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pillaiyarkuppam,
Pondicherry-607 402, India.
Phone: 8098439204, E-mail: email@example.com
Background: Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multidrug resistance, an aggressive course, increased mortality and morbidity in both community and health care facilities. Monitoring of newly emerging and prevalent Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains for their resistance patterns to conventional as well as novel drugs, are essential for infection control.
Aims: To study the changing trends in resistance patterns of MRSA at our hospital.
Settings and Design: This cross sectional study was carried out in a 750 bed tertiary care hospital in south India.
Material and Methods: One hundred and two clinical isolates of MRSA which were obtained in 2004-2011 were identified by using oxacillin, cefoxitin disc diffusion test and oxacillin screening agar test. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done for commonly used non beta lactam anti-Staphylococcal drugs, as well as for anti-MRSA drugs like vancomycin, linezolid, mupirocin and rifampicin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin was determined by using Vancomycin HiComb strip (Himedia, Mumbai, India).
Statistical Analysis which was done: Chi-square test and proportions were used to compare the two groups.
Results: MRSA isolates showed high resistance to co-trimoxazole (82.3%), ciprofloxacin (76.4%), gentamicin (64.7%) and tetracycline (49%) as compared to other drugs. High prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance was detected, particularly among outpatients. Multi resistant MRSA with a = 3 non-beta lactam agent resistance was 79%. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, mupirocin and rifampicin. MRSA had displayed increase in resistance to most antibiotics except tetracycline in recent years.
Conclusions: Taking into consideration the prevalence of multidrug resistance in MRSA, resistance patterns should be evaluated periodically and antibiotic therapy should be guided by susceptibility testing.