Impact of Prehypertension on Left Ventricular Structure, Function and Geometry BC07-BC10
Dr. J.K. Bajpai,
Department of Physiology, Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh-243002, India.
Phone: 9458701458, E-mail: email@example.com
Background: Awareness of prevalence, determinants, and prognosis of asymptomatic untreated prehypertension is still lacking especially in India and subcontinent.
Aim: The present study was to assess the effects of prehypertension on structure, function and geometrical pattern of left ventricle on the basis of left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular mass indexed to height (LVMI/Ht), and relative wall thickness (RWT) recorded by echocardiography based on the American society of echocardiography (ASE) convention.
Methods: The study population included prehypertensives (n 61; 31 M, 30 F) and normotensives (n 38; 19 M, 19 F) between age 25 and 65 years, and were assessed by echocardiography.
Results: It was observed that the stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), were found to be little elevated but was not significant in hypertensive females compared to normotensives. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), pulse pressure (PP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), end systolic stress (ESS), and end isovolumetric systolic stress (EISS) were significantly elevated (p<0.001) in female prehypertensives compared to normotensives. Left ventricular mass (LVM) was significantly (p< 0.05) elevated, indicating alterations in cardiac morphology and functions even during prehypertensive stage. However, in prehypertensive males, SBP, DBP, HR, PP, MAP, ESS, and EISS were significantly (<0.001) raised; ejection fraction (EF%) and fractional fibre shortening (FS%) were noted to be within normal range in both sexes. Prehypertensive males showed changes in left ventricular geometry in the form of concentric remodeling (CR-3.22%), eccentric hypertrophy (EH-3.22%) and concentric hypertrophy (CH-12.90%). Prehypertensive females showed (CR-6.66%), (EH-3.33%) and (CH-6.66%).
Conclusion: Such findings carry prognostic implication and require further population survey involving a larger group. Early diagnosis of prehypertension will help to take necessary preventive measures to reduce mainly the future cardiovascular complications. The care of prehypertensive subjects should include, to reduce the afterload in order to improve the left ventricular contractile state as early as possible. So it is advisable to do routine echocardiography after the age of 40 years.