Low Hemoglobin Level a Risk Factor for Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (ALRTI) in Children PC01-PC03
Dr. Sheikh Quyoom Hussain,
Noor Abad Colony, Jamia Masjid Lane, Hyderpora, Srinagar, J & K-190014, India.
Phone: 09858828356, E-mail: email@example.com
Background: Acute lower respiratory tract infection is a major cause of death in under five years of age, and anemia is the commonest co-factor in pediatric patients seeking medical advice especially in developing countries.
Aim: To analyze whether a low hemoglobin level is a risk factor for acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) in children.
Materials and Methods: Prospective case control study on 220 children (110 cases and controls each) was carried out in our childrenâ€™s hospital (G.B. Pant Hospital), an associated hospital of Government Medical College Srinagar, of Kashmir Northern India. All patients between the age of 1 month to 5 years of age who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included. We used WHO criteria to diagnose ALRTI among the cases, and age and sex matched patients who did not have respiratory complaints were kept as controls. Patients who had congenital heart diseases, tuberculosis, malignancies, or dysmorphic features were excluded from the study. All patients were subjected to detailed history and thorough clinical examination followed by investigations like complete blood count (CBC), peripheral blood film (PBF) smear, blood culture and sensitivity test, X-ray chest, serum iron and iron binding capacity were done in all cases.
Results: Our study had slightly male preponderance 57.3% in study group and 59.1% in control group. Maximum number of children were between 3 months and 23 months both in the study (80.9%) as well as in the control (81.8%) group. In this study hemoglobin level <11 gm/dL was considered low. Mean Hb level was 8.8 gm/dL in the study group and 11.6 gm/dL in the control group. Anemia was found in 71 (64.5%) cases in the study group and in 31 (28.2%) cases in the control group. Anemic patients were found to be 4.6 times more susceptible to ALRTI in our study (Odds Ratio was 4.63), p-value <0.001. Iron deficiency was found in 78.9% of total anemic cases in the study group, p-value <0.001. In the study group, the mean serum iron level was 35.3 mcg/dL in the anemic cases and 57.1 mcg/dL in the non-anemic cases. while in the control group, these values were 52.4 mcg/dL and 62.6% mcg/dL respectively, (p-value <0.01).
Conclusion: Anemia, predominantly iron deficiency anemia, was significantly found in ALRTI patients, and these patients were found to be 4.6 times more susceptible to ALRTI. Early and accurate diagnosis of anemia in children suffering from various ailments in particular to ALRTI will serve the mankind in a better way.