Fluconazole Resistant Candida Oesophagitis in Immunocompetent Patients: Is Empirical Therapy Justifiable? DC16-DC18
Dr. Aarti Kotwal,
Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences,
Jolly Grant, Dehradun-248146, India.
Introduction: C. albicans (Candida albicans) is the foremost cause of fungal oesophagitis, however other species such as Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida stellatoidea have also been implicated to cause this condition. Although, numerous studies have identified risk factors for C. albicans oesophagitis, data for non- C. albicans species is still sparse.
Aim: To determine the aetiology of Candida oesophagitis in our medical centre over a two year period. Additionally, to investigate predisposing conditions for oesophageal candidiasis caused by different Candida species.
Material and Methods: All consecutive patients posted for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the endoscopy unit of a tertiary care hospital in north India with findings consistent with oesophagitis were screened for the presence of Candida oesophagitis by performing KOH (potassium hydroxide) examination and culture on SDA (Sabouraudâ€™s dextrose agar). Antifungal susceptibility testing as per CLSI guidelines was performed for fluconazole, a most common empirically prescribed antifungal for the condition.
Results: A total of 1868 patients with no known immune-compromised condition underwent upper gastroscopy at our centre during the study period. The prevalence of Candida oesophagitis was 8.7% (n = 163). C. albicans was recovered from majority of infections (52.1%), followed by C. tropicalis (24%), C. parapsilosis (13.4%), C. glabrata (6.9%) and C. krusei (3.6%). Alarmingly, among the C. albicans isolates 8.6% were resistant to fluconazole.
Conclusion: With rising reports of antifungal drug resistance among the isolates of Candida species, an increasing prevalence of this organism could have an impact on the treatment of Candidal oesophagitis and it should be approached with caution by the clinician.