Dysregulation of Glucose Homeostasis Following Chronic Exogenous Administration of Leptin in Healthy Sprague-Dawley Rats OF06-OF09
Dr. Harbindarjeet Singh,
Faculty of Medicine, Sungai Buloh and I-PerFFORM, Selayang Campus, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Introduction: Impaired glucose utilization is seen in chronic hyperleptinaemia associated conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is unclear if this impaired glucose utilization is due to the effect of persistent hyperleptinaemia on insulin secretion from the beta cells of pancreas.
Aim: To examine the effects of chronic leptin administration on plasma glucose regulation in rats.
Materials and Methods: Glucose challenge curves were plotted for male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with either normal saline (Control; n=8) or subcutaneous leptin injection for 42 days (60 Âµg/kg body weight/day; n=8). Plasma glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 minutes after glucose challenege. Skeletal muscle tissue was collected at the end of a glucose challenge for glucose transporter-4 protein content, insulin receptor and glucose transporter-4 mRNA expression. Data were analysed using repeated measures and one-way ANOVA with post-hoc analysis.
Results: Chronic leptin treatment caused significantly higher fasting insulin level. Post glucose challenge, there was a significant increase in blood glucose levels and insulin level in the leptin treated rats. There was no significant difference in the skeletal muscle glucose transporter-4 content. However, leptin treated rats showed decreased mRNA expression of Insulin Receptor and glucose transporter-4 in the skeletal muscle.
Conclusion: Leptin administration for 42 days caused hyperinsulinaemia and decreased the expression of insulin receptors in insulin sensitive tissues leading to the development of an insulin resistance-like state in the rats.