Diagnostic and Surgical Approach of Thyroglossal Duct Cyst in Children: Ten Years Data Review PC13-PC15
Dr. Chrysostomos Kepertis,
2nd Department of Paediatric Surgery, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, General Hospital â€śPapageorgiouâ€ť
Ring Road Efkarpia-Thessaloniki-56403, Greece.
Introduction: Thyroglossal duct cysts are the most common congenital midline neck swelling in children.
Aim: To evaluate the clinical features, treatment, incidence of complications and outcomes in children with congenital midline neck lesions and more specifically with thyroglossal duct cyst, treated in our department the last ten years. It is a retrospective study.
Materials and Methods: The aggregated data revealed 59 patients with congenital midline neck lesions, of which 33 patients were with thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC). The diagnosis of TDC was made by physical examination, ultrasound (US) in all cases, and for complicated cases a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. In all cases followed histopathological conformation of thyroglossal duct cyst.
Results: Fifty nine patients were admitted with midline cystic neck mass and the histopathological evaluation revealed, 33 cases (55.9%) of thyroglossal duct cyst, 14 cases (23.7%) of dermoid cysts, 3 cases (5.1%) of second branchial anomalies, 4 cases (6.7%) of inflammation of unknown cause, 4 cases (6.7%) of lymph nodes and 1 case (1.7%) of capillary skin haemangioma. More specifically, 38 patients were admitted with preoperative diagnosis of thyroglossal duct cyst, but in 5 patients pathological investigation demonstrated the presence of dermoid cyst. The mean age of the 33 patients with TDC at the time of surgery was 6.125 years, ranging between 9 months and 13 years with 10 patients younger than 3 years. Of the 38 patients with initial diagnosis of thyroglossal duct cyst, only four patients (10.5%) had a simple cyst excision and complication rate was 25% (1 case with recurrence). In these patients, the histopathological examination showed that three of them had a dermoid cyst and one had thyroglossal duct cyst. The other 34 patients (89.4%) were treated by Sistrunkâ€™s procedure, with two cases (5.9%) were proven on histology to be non TDC. In this group the complication rate was 3.03% (1 case with wound infection).
Conclusion: The inappropriate surgical approach due to misdiagnosis or the incomplete surgical procedure remains the impact factor for recurrence. The modification of Sistrunkâ€™s procedure remains the main surgical technique that can provides good results with low rate of complication (3.03%) and recurrence (0%) as shown of our collecting data.