Peer Teaching to Foster Learning in Physiology JC01-JC06
Dr. Tripti K Srivastava,
Professor, Department of Physiology, Professor & Head, Department of Medical Education, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College,
Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (DU), Sawangi(M), Wardha, Maharashtra-442001, India.
Introduction: Peer teaching is an effective tool to promote learning and retention of knowledge. By preparing to teach, students are encouraged to construct their own learning program, so that they can explain effectively to fellow learners. Peer teaching is introduced in present study to foster learning and pedagogical skills amongst first year medical under-graduates in physiology with a Hypothesis that teaching is linked to learning on part of the teacher.
Materials and Methods: Non-randomized, Interventional study, with mixed methods design. Cases experienced peer teaching whereas controls underwent tutorials for four consecutive classes. Quantitative Evaluation was done through pre/post test score analysis for Class average normalized gain and tests of significance, difference in average score in surprise class test after one month and percentage of responses in closed ended items of feedback questionnaire. Qualitative Evaluation was done through categorization of open ended items and coding of reflective statements.
Results: The average pre and post test score was statistically significant within cases (p = 0.01) and controls (p = 0.023).The average post test scores was more for cases though not statistically significant. The class average normalized gain (g) for Tutorials was 49% and for peer teaching 53%. Surprise test had average scoring of 36 marks (out of 50) for controls and 41 marks for cases. Analysed section wise, the average score was better for Long answer question (LAQ) in cases. Section wise analysis suggested that through peer teaching, retention was better for descriptive answers as LAQ has better average score in cases. Feedback responses were predominantly positive for efficacy of peer teaching as a learning method. The reflective statements were sorted into reflection in action, reflection on action, claiming evidence, describing experience, and recognizing discrepancies.
Conclusion: Teaching can stimulate further learning as it involves interplay of three processes: metacognitive awareness; deliberate practice, and self-explanation. Coupled with immediate feedback and reflective exercises, learning can be measurably enhanced along with improved teaching skills.