Pattern of Use of Antibiotics Following Snake Bite in a Tertiary Care Hospital OC05-OC09
Dr. Dhanya Sasidharan Palappallil,
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Government TD Medical College, Alappuzha, Kerala-688005, India.
Introduction: There are several conflicting recommendations on the use of antibiotics in snakebite victims. This study aimed to identify the pattern of antibiotics used following snake envenomation in a tertiary care hospital of Kerala.
Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of case records from January to August 2011 was done and all the cases filed as snakebite were reviewed and details entered in a structured performa. Data was analysed using SPSS 16 and results were expressed mainly using descriptive statistics.
Results: Three hundred and thirteen cases were evaluated with mean age 37.58Â± 14.54 year and 51.1% were males. Out of total, 94.6% received antibiotics of which 88.85% were oral, 8.1% parenteral and 3.04% both. There were total 454 prescriptions of antibiotics. In all seven different types of antibiotics were prescribed alone or in combination of which Ampicillin (205) was the commonest followed by Cloxacillin (194). The mean antibiotic usage was 1.46Â±0.716 per patient and the mean duration of antibiotic use was 3.16Â±1.446 days. In patients with no envenomation the mainly prescribed antibiotic was Cloxacillin (126). Intravenous antibiotics like Piperacillin plus Tazobactam were given only in patients with either local or systemic envenomation.
Conclusion: The main pattern of use of antibiotics following snakebite envenomation is Ampicillin alone or in combination empirically, Cloxacillin prophylatically and Piperacillin with Tazobactam for severe established infections. The choice of antibiotics is based on the clinicianâ€™s discretion. Since the study setting is in a developing country the prophylactic use of antibiotics may be justified weighing the concerns of secondary infections.