Coronal/Hemicoronal Approach – A Gateway to Craniomaxillofacial Region PC01-PC05
Dr. Susmitha Rajmohan,
Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery, Sri Aurobindo College of Dentistry, Indore-Ujjain State Highway,
Bhanwrasala, Tehsil- Sanwer, District- Indore, 453111, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Aims: The coronal incision with its various modifications provides the most versatile approach to various areas in the craniomaxillofacial region coupled with excellent exposure. The aesthetic advantage of a hidden scar in the hairline, accounts for its continued popularity. The aim of this study was to review the surgical anatomy, technique and problems of post-operative morbidity pertinent to coronal approach in various clinical situations such as craniofacial trauma, tumour resections and reconstructive craniofacial procedures.
Materials and Methods: In this study, ten patients who presented to Oral and maxillofacial surgery department with various craniofacial problems requiring the use of coronal and hemicoronal approach for treatment were evaluated over a period of two years. Five patients needed coronal approach and another five underwent the surgical procedures through hemicoronal approach. This was an observational study.
Results: It was observed that a well-planned and carefully designed coronal/hemicoronal incision with strict adherence to surgical principles posed minimal complication during surgery as well as post-operatively. None of the patients developed infection or heamatoma in the postoperative period. Sensory nerve deficits along the distribution of supraorbital nerve was observed in four patients of bicoronal approach and three patients of hemicoronal approach which completely resolved at the end of six months. Motor nerve weakness was observed in four patients in immediate postoperative period which gradually improved. But it persisted in one patient even after six months who had pathology of temporo-orbital region. All the patients had transient alopecia along the line of incision which improved at the end of six months. No other significant disadvantages or complications were noted.
Conclusion: This approach offers widest accessibility and visibility to the entire upper and middle one third of the face in less than twenty minutes as observed in our study. The postoperative complications are minimal, minor and outweigh the advantages for surgical treatment in any given clinical situation as observed in this study. This proves the brilliance of coronal approach in solving an array of surgical problems pertinent to craniomaxillofacial region with superior aesthetic outcomes. Abbreviations: ZMC-Zygomatico maxillary complex, NOE-Nasoethmoidal complex, LF-Lefort, ORIF-open reduction internal fixation.