Simple Molecular Methods for Early Detection of Chloroquine Drug Resistance in Plasmodium Vivax and Plasmodium Falciparum DC19-DC23
Dr. Gurjeet Singh,
Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Dr. M.C. Saxena College of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, U.P, India.
Introduction: Malaria is a human disease of which causes high morbidity and mortality. In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the resistance to antimalarial drugs, especially chloroquine (CQ) is one of the paramount factors contributing to the global increase in morbidity and mortality, due to malaria. Hence, there is a need for detection of chloroquine drug resistance genes i.e., pfcrt-o (Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter-o) and pfmdr-1 (Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance-1) of P. falciparum and pvcrt-o (Plasmodium vivax chloroquine resistance transporter-o) and pvmdr-1 (Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance-1) of P. vivax by using molecular methods to prevent mortality in malarial cases.
Aim: To standardize chloroquine drug sensitivity testing by molecular method so as to provide reports of chloroquine within 6-8 hours to physicians for better treatment.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted over a period of one year from January to December 2014. A Total of 300 blood samples were collected from malaria suspected patient attending MGM Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, India. Out of 300 blood samples, 44 were malaria positive as assessed by Thick and Thin blood smear stained, by Leishmanâ€™s method and examination with light microscope. Chloroquine drug sensitivity testing was performed using WHO III plate method (micro test). Nested PCR was done for detection of pfcrt-o and pfmdr-1 for P. falciparum and pvcrt-o, pvmdr-1 genes for P. vivax.
Results: Total 44 samples were included in this study, out of which 22 samples confirmed for Plasmodium falciparum and 22 samples confirmed for Plasmodium vivax. Out of 22 P. falciparum 15 (68.18%) samples were chloroquine resistant. P. vivax showed chloroquine resistance to 5 samples (22.73%) by method similar to WHO III plate method (micro test) and nested PCR.
Conclusion: Drug resistance testing by molecular methods is useful for early detection of antimalarial drug resistance. pfmdr-1 along with pfcrt-o can be used as biomarker for chloroquine drug resistance in P. falciparum and pvmdr-1 along with pvcrt-o for P. vivax.